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Course planning and instructional methods for school districts are usually handled by

educational psychologists

The method of learning that stresses examining one's own thoughts and feelings is

introspection

Social psychologists differ from personality psychologists in their focus on

external rather than internal influences

The practice of psychology is closely related to the natural sciences by

all of the above

The majority of psychologists are

clinical psychologists

In contrast to other early psychologists, Sigmund Freud gained his understanding of human behavior

in consultations with patients

William James rejected structuralism and focused on

how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment

In SOAPS, the "A" stands for

audience

Human consciousness, experience, and self-awareness are the main concerns of

the humanistic perspective

The modern biological perspective of psychology studies

the effects of biological factors on our behavior

Modern psychology was born in the

1800s, after the birth of modern science

In statistics, Mean is the

average

Psychology is defined as the

scientific study of behavior and mental processes

The contemporary psychoanalytic perspective stresses the influence of

conscious choice and self-direction

Many scientists do not believe in astrology because

experiments in astrology often do not yield the same results twice

Two research methods widely used by psychologists are

surveys and experiments

The school of behaviorism defined psychology as

the scientific study of observable behavior

According to Gestalt psychologists, much learning is accomplished by

sudden insight

In statistics, Correlation is the

measure of the relationship between two variables

In Identifying Cause and Effect for critical thinking, you should

all of the above

Developmental psychologists are especially concerned with

changes that occur throughout the life span

Counseling psychologists encourage their clients to

all of the above

In its early days, the school of psychoanalysis stressed that behavior was caused by

unconscious motives and conflicts

The main goals of psychology are to

observe, describe, explain, predict, and control behavior

In OPTIC, the "T" stands for

title

According to the American Psychological Association, psychologists can deceive participants in an experiment

if there will be no harmful effects from the study

Synapses are located between the

axons of one neuron and the dendrites of another

One of the most useful types of studies for showing the influence of heredity and environment examines

twins who have been reared apart

Men have traditionally taken part in psychological studies more often than women because

older studies drew participants from the military and universities

Scientists sometimes replicate a study using different participants in order to

make sure the findings are true for different groups of people

The testing method of observation investigates human behavior through

all of the above

Researchers learn about the brain by studying

all of the above

The two main divisions of the central nervous system are the

brain and the spinal cord

"Skinner boxes" are examples of

laboratory observation

One method that helps researchers gather information from many people is a

survey

Scientists are cautious about making generalizations from case studies because

case studies cannot always be replicated

The greatest drawback of the longitudinal method is that participants in the study

may drop out

In an experiment, it is useful to have a control group to

show the effect of the treatment and no other factors

Psychologists keep the records of their research participants confidential to

encourage participants to tell the truth

The adrenal glands produce

the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline

Sharpness of vision is known as

visual acuity

Smell and taste are known as the

chemical senses

According to the biopsychological approach, dreaming occurs because of the

random firing of neurons

Sounds are caused by

vibrations that cause changes in air pressure

Sleep is considered a necessary vital function because it

does all of the above

Rubbing a sore area may lessen the pain because

the nervous system can only handle a certain amount of information at one time

Biofeedback has been used successfully to treat

high blood pressure

The main colors of the visible spectrum are

red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet

Rods in the retina allow us to recognize

outlines of objects

Amphetamines have been used to

help people stay awake

Many of our basic biological functions, such as breathing, exist at the

non-conscious level

The lens of the eye is responsible for

keeping objects in focus

Maintenance programs help people addicted to narcotics by all of the following except

removing all drugs from the addict

Sleep and meditation are examples of

altered states of consciousness

The cones in the retina are sensitive to

blue, green, and red light

"Role theory" suggests that people who are hypnotized

believe what they are doing is real

During a 24-hour day, people experience a sequence of changes in

all of the above

Some psychologists dispute that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness because

people's brain wave patterns do not change under hypnosis

Through the process of sensory adaptation, we learn to

block out sounds we hear frequently

Sensorineural deafness prevents people from hearing

sounds of certain frequencies

Most psychologists suggest that punishment is not the best way to deal with a problem because it

does all of the above

A variable-ratio schedule provides reinforcement

at any time

Classical conditioning is useful to animals and people because it helps them

do all of the above

The process of learning to ride a bicycle is an example of

shaping

The PQ4R method is an effective study method because it

is based on active learning

People who watch a lot of violence on television are more likely to be violent in part because of

observational learning

A slot machine provides reinforcement to players based on a

variable-ratio schedule

The process by which a stimulus increases the chances of a preceding behavior occurring again is called

reinforcement

The skills needed for riding a bicycle are stored as

implicit memories

A visual code helps a person remember a fact by

creating a mental picture

Flashbulb memories are so vivid because they

recall events with special meanings

B. F. Skinner designed a device called a "teaching machine" for an educational method known as

programmed learning

Psychologist E. C. Tolman did experiments on rats that showed

that reinforcement is not always necessary for learning

An eyewitness' memory of a crime can be distorted by

hypnosis

Facts learned in classes at school become part of the

semantic memory

The representativeness heuristic helps people make decisions based on

the population that seems to apply to the problem

Studies have shown that musical ability may be linked to

spatial reasoning ability

The beginning of true language in babies occurs when they start

learning words

A balance sheet may help in solving a problem by

helping a person visualize the best course of action

Sensitivity to other people's feelings and the ability to respond to them appropriately are components of

the seven intelligences described by Howard Gardner

Prototypes make concepts easier to understand by allowing us to

picture a specific example of the concept

About half of the people who take the Wechsler tests score

between 90 and 110

The most reliable approach to solving a problem is

the algorithm

What type of thinking is most closely related to language?

All of the above are closely related to language

A person's "mental set" tends to make him or her solve problems by

trying an approach that was successfully used with a similar problem

Psychologist Charles Spearman believed that intelligence

was made up of two main factors

Young children often exhibit the behavior of overextension, in which they

try to talk about more things than they have words for

Mildly retarded adults are often able to

do all of the above

Creative problem solving involves

divergent thinking

Alfred Binet designed his aptitude tests for children of different age levels because he

assumed that intelligence increased with age

One example of continuous development is a child's

growth in weight and height from ages 2 to 11

Developmental psychologists study infancy and childhood to learn about

all of the above

According to Piaget, people reach cognitive maturity during the

formal-operational stage

Infants who are insecurely attached to their caregivers respond by

doing all of the above

Attachment is essential for infants because it helps them

rely on other people for their survival

Children of authoritative parents often grow up to be

achievement-oriented

John Watson and other behavioral psychologists believed that

an infant's mind is like a blank slate at birth

Babies show a preference for looking at human faces

by about four months

Studies of children in daycare centers have shown

mixed effects on these children's social development

Parents can encourage a child to master self-control by

consistent and firm enforcement of rules

The most dramatic gains in height and weight occur

before birth

Development of self-esteem in young children can be encouraged by

authoritative parenting

The type of development that developmental psychologists focus on is

all of the above

Babies pull up their legs and arch their backs in response to sudden noises because of the

Moro reflex

Stage theorists explain development as occurring

rapidly and dramatically

Teenagers in the identity-achievement category tend to feel

a high level of self-esteem and self-acceptance

Menarche usually begins in females between the ages of

11 and 14

Puberty brings out differences between males and females through

the release of different types of hormones

The most rewarding part-time job a teenager can hold

fills a financial need in the teenager's family, community, or future

During adolescence, friendship becomes important in

all of the above

Gender differences in patterns of friendship that appear during adolescence

continue into adulthood

The biological stage of development known as puberty ends when

physical growth stops

During the period of parent-adolescent conflict, teenagers more often follow the

religious and political values of their parents

Because many women work outside the home, female adolescents are more likely to

do all of the above

A man's deep voice is an example of a

secondary sex characteristic

The behavior of adolescents is most affected by

cultural and social influences

The Hispanic quinceñera and the Jewish bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah are examples of

rites of passage

An adolescent's career and educational goals are most influenced by his or her

parents

Peer pressure for adolescents is strongest

at about age 15

Adolescents who retain close ties to their parents are more likely to

show self-reliance and independence

Women tend to undergo their midlife transitions

earlier than men do

People are influenced in their marital decisions by

all of the above

In recent years, the median age of first marriage has

risen

Free radicals are produced

as a result of all of the above

Boys tend to adjust to divorce

less easily than girls

Teenage marriages suffer a higher divorce rate than adult marriages because teenage couples

may lack personal stability

The concept of romantic love as a reason for marriage became widespread in Western society in the

1800s

During young adulthood, women are traditionally most concerned with

creating relationships with others

The percentage of children under the age of 18 living in single-parent households is about

25 percent

Menopause is caused by

the decrease in levels of estrogen and progesterone

The most common reasons couples give for divorce are

all of the above

The result of "no-fault" divorce laws has been

to make it easier to obtain a divorce

Middle adulthood spans the years from

40 to 65

Erik Erikson concluded that a key task of young adulthood is

all of the above

Children whose parents are divorced often experience the "sleeper effect," which

is a delayed reaction that shows up in early adulthood

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