Mitosis and Meiosis Vocabulary

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Mitosis and Meiosis vocabulary

anaphase

the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle

Asters

microtubules and fibers that radiate out from the centrioles

Asexual reproduction

reproduction without the fusion of gametes

Blastula

early stage of an embryo produced by cleavage of an ovum

Centromere

a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape

Centriole

one of two small cylindrical cell organelles composes of 9 triplet microtubules

Chromatid

one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis

Chromatin

the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins

Chromosome

a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order

Crossing over

the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis

Cytokinesis

organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells

Diploid

having two of each chromosome

DNA Replication

The process of doubling the DNA that occurs before mitosis

Germ Cells

the only cells that can undergo meiosis

Haploid

the actual number of different types of chromosomes a cell processes

Homologous Pairs

in diploid cells, a pair of identical chromosomes is called an homologous

Interphase

the phase of a cell's life cycle between the reproductive stages of mitosis

Meiosis

(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

Metaphase

the second stage of mitosis

Microtubules

mitosis, cell shape, in cilia and flagella

Mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

Oogenesis

development of ova

Ova

another word for eggs

Ovum

one egg

Polyploid

having more than a diploid number of chromosomes

Prophase

the first stage of mitosis when chromosomes form from chromatin and the nuclear membrane is absorbed into the cell

Reduction Division

(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

Sexual Reproduction

reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete

Somatic Cells

body cells

Spermatogenesis

development of spermatozoa

Spindle fibers

help pull apart the cell during replication and are made up of micrtubules

Synapsis

the side by side pairing of homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes at the start of meiosis

Telophase

the final stage of mitosis

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