Forms of political participation
seek public office, attend public meeting, communicate with representatives, initiate and repealing laws, voting
Does Texas have initiative and referendums?
Why do Americans vote less?
Lack of party-group linkage
How We Measure Public Opinion
1. question wording
3. contacting respondents
the margin of error or sampling error is quite small if the sample is carefully selected. All polls contain some error, 3 to 5% is considered a reasonably small rate of error.
what are the shortcoming of polling?
limited respondent options
lack of information
Political socialization is the process by which we teach and learn our political knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, values and habits of behavior.
What is the oldest form of local government?
What is the greatest local government expenditure?
government incorporated in cities
County government in Texas
County Commissioners Court
mayor heads what branch
city council heads what branch
mayor council forms
weak mayor council form or strong mayor council form, council members are elected at large or by districts and the mayor is elected at large
weak mayor council form
other executives such as the city attorney and the city treasury are also elected
strong mayor council form
the mayor appoints other executives and has more significant budgetary and veto powers. the form of municipal government employs the checks and balances ideas of how to form public policy. Population of at least 250,000
council manager form
a mayor council cities have an official appointed by the mayor to tend to the internal business of the city while the mayor attends to political matters.
Impact of competitive election and turnout
Impact of competitive election and city taxes
impact of competitive elections and general expenditures
political party constituent function
-SELECT CANDIDATES FOR OFFICE; FORMAL PROCESS GOVERNED BY STATE & FEDERAL LAW
-SUPPORT CANDIDATES FOR OFFICE
-DISTINCTION BETWEEN MAJOR AND MINOR PARTIES: CAN THEY WIN?
-STATE GOVERNMENTS HAVE TECHNICAL DEFINITIONS USUALLY BASED ON VOTE % FOR GOVERNOR. MAJOR PARTIES MUST HAVE PRIMARY ELECTIONS.
political party information function
-DEVELOP A PROGRAM & EDUCATE PUBLIC
-SET OF BELIEFS, NEARLY COMPREHENSIVE
-POLICY GOALS & PROGRAMS FOR GOVERNMENT
political party government function
-ORGANIZE GOVERNMENT, WINNERS
-LEGISLATURES CAUCUS & GET COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS BY PARTY; GOVERNOR APPOINTS SUPPORTERS BY PARTY; JUDGES TEND TO VOTE TOGETHER
interest groups constituent function
LIMITED; DO NOT SELECT CANDIDATES BUT DO SUPPORT CANDIDATES. CAN SUPPORT CANDIDATES DURING PRIMARY ELECTIONS. CAN AND DO SUPPORT BOTH CONTESTANTS FOR SAME OFFICE. SUPPORT AFTER ELECTION IS COMMON IN TEXAS.
interest groups information function
BELIEFS NOT NECESSARILY COMPREHENSIVE IN SCOPE; LIMITED POLICY PREFERENCES
PRIMARY TARGET IS GROUP MEMBERS RATHER THAN ENTIRE PUBLIC
interest group government function
DO NOT ORGANIZE GOVERNMENT; BUT DO PROVIDE INFORMATION AND ORGANIZE FOR SPECIFIC POLICY GOALS
WHEN ACTIVITY IS CONCENTRATED
PARTIES AT ELECTIONS; INTEREST GROUPS BETWEEN ELECTIONS
choose at time of registration. Register by party: information is public, commitment is binding
voters choose at time of election. information becomes public after the primary election
mixed primary election
other combinations of when people choose and whether decisions are binding. Depend on those choices, a state may have the equivalent of a closed primary (republicans) and open primary (democrats)
top two system
used in Washington. Parties are challenging. All candidates for all parties on ballot, voters cast one vote for each office; candidates expressing a party preference. Top two finishers compete in general election, regardless of party preference and even if top finisher receives a majority
What are Texas Primary Election systems?
responsible party system
american political parties are not responsible parties that is they cannot completely control nominations, campaign financing or party members adherence to the party platform
mud, "swift boating" and "branding"
What weakens political parties
new style politics
campaigning focuses on using television, dropping the person to person contact between party workers and voters and appealing for party unity
one kind of negative campaigning involves turning a candidates strength into a weakness
greater control by the Democratic party and greater tax burden
correlation is .4 moderate positive correlation
partisan control and state/local expenditures
legislative control by Democratic party and state policies, and abortion laws
r=-.46 moderate negative correlation greater control by democratic party result in fewer restriction on abortion
Democratic control and TANF
no correlation exclude Southern state r=.28
Does competition influence politics?
no there is little to suggest that competition influence public policy
interest group assets
organization of individuals who share one or more interest
-try to influence political system
SHARING INFORMATION. LOBBYISTS WANT TO GAIN RECOGNITION, NOT BUY FUTURE SUPPORT. ALSO ACCESS
targets of electioneering
targets of lobbying
targets of propagandizing
Who is more likely to join an interest group?
MORE education and income, wealthy, white and male, involved in business
The type of lobbyists in Texas
energy, insurance, banking, real estate, health care, and agriculture industries
committee formed by an organization, industry, or individual for the purpose of collecting money and then contributing that money to selected political candidates and causes.
population and campaign contributions
strong positive correlation
Which groups of people do interest groups overrepesent?
White, males, businesses, wealthy and better educated
states with stronger interest group influence have lower tax burdens
relationship between interest group strength and TANF payments is
Is there a correlation between abortion laws and per capita expenditures
What can we conclude about the correlations of tax and welfare policies and interest groups are a result of what
the correlations result from a spurious relationship
Turnout of elections during presidential voting year from greatest to lowest
Governor, president and lastly US House (congress)
Turnout of elections during presidential off year voting from greatest to lowest
governor voting is less than presidential outcome and then US House off year
The American Voter
1952-1956 presidential elections and discussed how class coalitions led to party affiliation
straw polls to predict every presidential election from 1920-1932 except 1936 Landon would bet FDR. FDR won in a landslide talking all but two states
simply ask as many people as possible a given set of questions. They do not choose a sample in a random and scientific manner so that the sample will represent the population
poor technique of sampling
nonstratified sampling, straw polls, and most notably sampling methods
party identification are dependent on what factors
transmission from parents, likely to participate, likely to be informed, least likely to vote for opposition, enduring, vote based on PID not issues
competitive results and voter turnout in 2006 Gubernatorial elections
turnout and party representatives of lower chamber
democrat and republican balance in electorate and state lower house 2006
strong positive correlation
15000 have decreased
have increased 37000
population and local government
positive strong correlation
Greatest local government expenditure