The starch-digesting enzymes of the saliva and pancreatic juice are called what?
Pepsin is produced from a zymogen called what?
As a result of the exchange of Cl⁻ for HCO₃⁻ by the parietal cells, blood leaving the stomach while digestion os underway exhibits a low-pH what?
The partially digested slurry that passes from the stomach into the small intestine is called what?
Each hepatic lobule consists of plates of epithelial cells radially arranged around a blood vessel called the what?
Dietary lipids are taken up by a lymphatic capillary called the _______ in each villus of the small intestine.
Tissue layers of the digestive tract in correct order from lumen to external surface are what?
Lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa (Lp+MmS=MeS)
Bacteria-destroying macrophages are found in sinusoids of what?
Vitamin B₁₂, which is needed for red blood cell production, requires what for its absorption?
What are produced in epithelial cells of the small intestine as lipids are absorbed?
What consists of a bile ductule and branches of the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein?
All of the following except what contribute to the large surface area available for nutrient absorption in the small intestine?
Name 5 components of bile.
bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, neutral fats (BsBCPNf)
Which component of bile has/have a digestive function?
All of the following enzymes digest proteins except what?
The absorption of what depends on the presence of vitamin D?
Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?
The small intestine is suspended from the dorsal body wall by what?
What process allows excess glucose to be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen?
When oxygen is in short supply, pyruvic acid is reduced to what?
Pyruvic acid is converted to __(what transition step?)__ under aerobic conditions and then it enters what cycle?
Acetyl coenzyme A; Krebs cycle
Pyruvic acid is dependent on the availability of what? (glycolosis=O₂ independent)
Coenzyme A is derived from what B vitamin?
Krebs cycle is also referred to as what two names? How many steps?
Citric Acid Cycle; (Tricarboxylic Acid) TCA Cycle; 8
Krebs cycle is a series of biochemical reactions that occur in what?
Matrix of Mitochondria
The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the what?
Reduced Coenzymes (NADH+H⁺ and FADH₂)
Catabolism is what kind of reaction?
Anabolism is what kind of reaction?
What consists of movements of the GI tract that aid chemical digestion?
Series of catabolic (hydrolysis) reactions that break down large carbohydrate, lipid, and protein food molecules into smaller molecules that are usable by body cells.
Mechanical digestion consists of peristaltic movements called what?
Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by what?
Pepsin is an enzyme which is most effective in the very _____ environment of the _____.
The acid (HCl) in the stomach is secreted by the stomach's what cells?
In chemical digestion, what splits certain molecules in butterfat of milk into fatty acids and monoglycerides? (has a limited role in the adult stomach-active during infancy)
The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances, but it does allow what 4 things to absorb through it's lining?
Water (some), electrolytes, drugs (certain ones - asprin), and alcohol
Most food leaves the stomach 2-6 hours after ingestion. What will leave the earliest? Followed by what? Then followed by what third?
Carbohydrates; proteins; fats
What secretes hormones?
What secretes a mixture of fluid and digestive enzymes called ________.
Acini; pancreatic juice
Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest what 4 things?
starch, proteins, fats, nucleic acids
What enzyme in the pancreatic juice digests starch?
What enzyme in the pancreatic juice digests proteins?
Trypsin, Chymotrypsin, Carboxypeptidase
What enzyme in the pancreatic juice digests fats?
What enzyme in the pancreatic juice digests nucleic acids?
Pancreatic juice contains ______, which converts the acid stomach contents to a slightly _____ pH (7.1-8.2), halting stomach pepsin activity and promoting activity of pancreatic enzymes.
Sodium Bicarbonate; alkaline
The lobes of the liver are made up of lobules that contain what?
Hepatic Cells (liver cells or hepatocytes)
What 4 things are the lobes of the liver made up of?
Hepatic cells; sinusoids; stellate reticuloendothelial cells; central vein
What receives a double supply of blood from the hepatic artery and the hepatic portal vein?
All blood eventually leaves the liver through what?
Carbohydrates are broken down into _____ for absorption during ______ digestion in the small intestine.
What digestion starts in the stomach with pepsin at low pH?
Proteins are converted to what by trypsin and chymotrypsin in protein digestion?
Most lipid digestion in an adult occurs where?
Process where bile salts break the globules of triglycerides (fats) into droplets?
Nucleic acids are broken down into nucleotides for ________ in chemical digestion in the small intestine?
Dietary lipids are all absorbed by what?
Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of what? Which are resynthesized to what? Then formed into protein-coated sperical masses called what?
Micelles; triglycerides; chylomicrons
Chylomicrons are taken up by the _____ of a _____.
After Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal they enter what system?
From the Lymphatic system, chylomicrons then pass into what system?
After passing through the Cardiovascular System, chylomicrons finally reach what?
Liver (or adipose tissue)
Subdivisions of the Large Intestine include;
Cecum; colon; rectum; anal canal
What hangs inferior to the cecum?
What is inflammation of the appendix called?
Gangrene or peritonitis are life-threatening conditions that are the result of a ruptured what?
What is divided into ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid portions?
Mechanical movements of the large intestine include what?
Haustral churning, peristalsis, mass peristalsis
The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial or enzymatic action?
Inflammation of the liver that can be caused by viruses, drugs, and chemicals, including alcohol, is what?