As a result of the exchange of Cl⁻ for HCO₃⁻ by the parietal cells, blood leaving the stomach while digestion os underway exhibits a low-pH what?
The partially digested slurry that passes from the stomach into the small intestine is called what?
Each hepatic lobule consists of plates of epithelial cells radially arranged around a blood vessel called the what?
Dietary lipids are taken up by a lymphatic capillary called the _______ in each villus of the small intestine.
Tissue layers of the digestive tract in correct order from lumen to external surface are what?
Lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa (Lp+MmS=MeS)
Vitamin B₁₂, which is needed for red blood cell production, requires what for its absorption?
What consists of a bile ductule and branches of the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein?
All of the following except what contribute to the large surface area available for nutrient absorption in the small intestine?
Name 5 components of bile.
bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, neutral fats (BsBCPNf)
What process allows excess glucose to be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen?
Pyruvic acid is converted to __(what transition step?)__ under aerobic conditions and then it enters what cycle?
Acetyl coenzyme A; Krebs cycle
Krebs cycle is also referred to as what two names? How many steps?
Citric Acid Cycle; (Tricarboxylic Acid) TCA Cycle; 8
The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the what?
Reduced Coenzymes (NADH+H⁺ and FADH₂)
Series of catabolic (hydrolysis) reactions that break down large carbohydrate, lipid, and protein food molecules into smaller molecules that are usable by body cells.
Pepsin is an enzyme which is most effective in the very _____ environment of the _____.
In chemical digestion, what splits certain molecules in butterfat of milk into fatty acids and monoglycerides? (has a limited role in the adult stomach-active during infancy)
The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances, but it does allow what 4 things to absorb through it's lining?
Water (some), electrolytes, drugs (certain ones - asprin), and alcohol
Most food leaves the stomach 2-6 hours after ingestion. What will leave the earliest? Followed by what? Then followed by what third?
Carbohydrates; proteins; fats
Pancreatic juice contains ______, which converts the acid stomach contents to a slightly _____ pH (7.1-8.2), halting stomach pepsin activity and promoting activity of pancreatic enzymes.
Sodium Bicarbonate; alkaline
The lobes of the liver are made up of lobules that contain what?
Hepatic Cells (liver cells or hepatocytes)
What 4 things are the lobes of the liver made up of?
Hepatic cells; sinusoids; stellate reticuloendothelial cells; central vein
Carbohydrates are broken down into _____ for absorption during ______ digestion in the small intestine.
Nucleic acids are broken down into nucleotides for ________ in chemical digestion in the small intestine?
Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of what? Which are resynthesized to what? Then formed into protein-coated sperical masses called what?
Micelles; triglycerides; chylomicrons
After passing through the Cardiovascular System, chylomicrons finally reach what?
Liver (or adipose tissue)
Gangrene or peritonitis are life-threatening conditions that are the result of a ruptured what?
Mechanical movements of the large intestine include what?
Haustral churning, peristalsis, mass peristalsis
The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial or enzymatic action?