starting with collapse of the US stock market in 1929, period of worldwide economic stagnation and depression. Heavy borrowing by European nations from USA during WW1 contributed to instability in European economies. Sharp declines in income and production as buying and selling slowed down. Widespread unemployment, countries raised tariffs to protect their industries. America stopped investing in Europe. Lead to loss of confidence that economies were self adjusting
An alliance between the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals (against fascism) formed for the May 1936 French elections. It was largely successful, increasing the Communists in parliament from 10 to 72, and the Socials up to 146, making them the largest party in France.
A system introduced under Bolshevik rule after 1917 which involved land being seized and redistributed, factories given to the workers, banks being nationalized, and church property being granted to the state. This was enforced by the Cheka.
founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it - RUSSIA.
a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism - ITALY
suppression of opposition & established dictatorship over all cultural, economic, and political activities of the people, aggressive anti-Semitism & nationalism
Book writen by Hitler where he outlines his beliefs: Germans are a superior race, The Treaty of Versailles treated Germany unfairly and that a crowed Germany needed the lands of Eastern Europe and Russia
Spirit of Locarno
a series of treaties that were signed in Locarno, Switzerland that settled Germany's borders with France, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. After Germany and the Soviet Union signed these, they were able to join the League of Nations.
special police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in 1925
the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
1936; close cooperation between Italy and Germany, and soon Japan joined; resulted from Hitler; who had supported Ethiopia and Italy, he overcame Mussolini's lingering doubts about the Nazis.
The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.
agreement signed between Hitler and Stalin in 1939 in which the two dictators agreed not to attack each other
The Third German Empire, established by Adolf Hitler in the 1933 - 1945
the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.
this portion of France was the portion that was not occupied with Germany but followed Germany's every command - led by Petain
When Truman, Attlee, and Stalin meet; there was an extreme lack of trust, it came to light that there would be no elections in Eastern Europe, and agreements made at a previous war conference were finalized
new German republic the in 1921 owed 33 billion annually to the allied reparations commission. In order to recover from its severe economic issues the annual fees were reduced each year depending on the level of German economic prosperity and Germany received large loans each year from the United States. Stresseman & Hindenburg with democracy
The British economist John Maynard Keynes believed that the government could pull the economy out of a depression by increasing government spending, thus creating jobs and increasing consumer buying power.
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans. Attempted to build agriculture & industry
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition
The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.
The prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. He established a repressive fascist regime that valued nationalism, militarism, anti-liberalism and anti-communism combined with strict censorship and state propaganda; became a close ally of German dictator Adolf Hitler, whom he influenced, entered World War II 1940 on the side of Nazi Germany.
Nazi militia created by Hitler in 1921 that helped him to power but was eclipsed by the SS after 1943
New leader of Germany that was nationalist, moderate, called off passive resistance in the Ruhr, put down rebellions, and tried for unity between East and West
Was signed on August 27, 1928 by the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Japan, and a number of other states. The pact renounced aggressive war, prohibiting the use of war as "an instrument of national policy" except in matters of self-defence.
(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people
Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting then ruled as dictator
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
German lightning warfare. Characterized by highly mobility and concentrated forces at point of attack.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War