chapter 2

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frontal cortex

the front part of the cortex assists in planning, self-control, and self-regulation. very immature in the newborn

cortex

the crinkled outer layer of the brain

auditory cortex

hearing is quite acute at birth, the result of months of eavesdropping during the fetal period

visual cortex

vision is the least mature sense at birth because the fetus has nothing to see while in the womb

pruning

where unused neurons and misconnected dendrites atrophy and die

stress hormone affect on brain in development

the brain becomes incapable of normal stress responses. either making them hyper-vigilant or emotionally flat.

self-righting

the inborn drive to remedy a developmental deficit

reflexes critical for survival

breathing reflex, maintain body temperature (shiver, cry, curl-up, push-away covers), sucking reflex (also crying, spit up and swallowing)

benefits of breast feeding

ideal nutrition, fewer allergies, less chance of asthma, better childhood vision, less adult chance of cancer, diabetes and heart disease; reduced childhood cancer, lower incidence of SIDS, & lower incidence of breast cancer in mother, Correct fat-protein balance. Nutritionally complete. More digestible. Better growth. Disease protection. Better jaw and tooth development. Easier transition to solid food. Antibodies only found in breast milk & not formula, later puberty, higher IQ, less likely to be obese, natural contraception for mother, easier, increases survival of children born, increases income, less stress on father

sensorimotor intelligence

Piaget's term for the way infants think by using their senses and motor skills during the first period of cognitive development

Primary Circular Reactions

the first of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor inteligence, this one involving the infant's own body. The infant senses motion, sucking, noise, and son on and tries to understand them

Secondary Circular Reactions

the second of three types of feedback loops insensorimotor intelligence, this one involving people and objects. The infant is responsive to other people and to toys and other objects the infanct can touch and move

Tertiary Circular Reactions

the third of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving active exploration and experiementation. The infant explores a range of new activities varying his or her responses as a way of learning about the world

Object Permanence

The realization that objects (including people) exist when they can no longer be seen, heard or touched

language ~ learning theory

all learning is acquired step by step through association and reinforcement.

Language Acquisition Device (theory) epigentic theory

Chomsky's term for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary, and intonation

Social Pragmatic Theory

Social Impulses foster infant language learning, infants communicate in every way they can because humans are social beings, dependant upon one another for survival, well-being and joy

Emotional Development from Infant to Toddler

birth - crying ; contentment
6 wks - social smile
3 mo - laughter; curiosity
4 mo - full, responsive smiles
4-8 mo - anger
9-14 mo - fear of social events (strangers, seperation from caregiver)
12 mo - fear of unexpected sights and sounds
18 mo - self-awareness; pride; shame; embarrassment

Emotional Ramifications of Excessive Stress on the Brain

hypothalmus may grow more slowing then in nonstressed infants. children can react negetively to stress (also reacting abnormally to photos of frightened people) (prevention by kangaroo care?) (fathers treatment of mother affects HER stress level, affecting the infants stress level)

Temperament

Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-regulation. temperment is epigenetic, originating in genes but affected by child-rearing practices.

Personality

personality traits are primarily learned

proximal parenting

caregiving practices that involve being physically close to a baby, with frequent holding and touching

distal parenting

caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from a baby, providing toys, food, and face- to - face communication with minimal holding and touching

secure attachment

a relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver

insecure avoidant attachment

a pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregivers presence, departure or return

insecure resistant/ambivalent attachment

a pattern of attachment in which anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when an infanct becomes very upset at seperation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact or reunion

disorganized attachment

A type of attachment that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departure and return

father/mother role in social and emotional development

fathers as well as mothers naturally read their infants emotions and respond with synchrony often provi=oking more laughter than mothers do. particularly adept at helping infants modulate anger. fathers encourage explorations, mothers more cautious and protective. Fathers more proximal in stimulating body play. (mom soft caresses, dad plays airplane)

family day care

child care that occurs in the home of someone to whom the child is not related and who usually cares for several children of various ages

center day care

chidl care that occurs in a place especially designed for the purpose, where several paid adults care for many chidren. usually the children are grouped by age, the day- care center is licensed, and providers are trained and certified in the child development

Sensorimotor Intelligence

Piaget's term for the way infants think by using their senses and motor skills during the first period of cognitive development

Primary Circular Reactions

the first of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor inteligence, this one involving the infant's own body. The infant senses motion, sucking, noise, and other stimulus and tries to understand them

Secondary Circular Reactions

the second of three types of feedback loops insensorimotor intelligence, this one involving people and objects. The infant is responsive to other people and to toys and other objects the infanct can touch and move

Tertiary Circular Reactions

the third of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving active exploration and experiementation. The infant explores a range of new activities varying his or her responses as a way of learning about the world

Object Permanence

the realization that objects (including people) continue to exist even when they can no longer be seen, touched, or heard.

"Little Scientist"

the stage- five (age 12- 18 months) who experiments with out anticipationg the results, using trial and error in active and creative exploration

Deferred Imitation

a sequence in which and infant first perceives something that someone else does and then performs the same action a few hours or even days later

Habituation

the process of getting used to an object or event through repeated exposure to it

fMRI

Functional magnetic resonance imaging, a measuring technique in which the brain's electrical exitement indicates activation anywhere in the brain; helps researchers locate neurlogical responses to stimuli

Information Processing Theory

a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output

Affordance

an opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment

Visual Cliff

an experimental apparatus that gives an illusion of a sudden dropoff between one horizontal surface and another

Dynamic Perception

Perception that is primed to focus on movement and change - grabbing and touching moving objects

People Preference

a universal principle of infant preception, consisting of an innate attraction to other humans, which is evident in visual, auditory, tactile, and other preferences

Reminder Session

a perceptual experience that is intended to help a person recollect an idea, a thing, or an experience, without testing whether the person remembers it at the moment

Child Directed Speech

High-pitched, simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to infants

Babbling

the extended repetition of certain syllables, such as ba-ba-ba, that begins between 6 and 9 months of age

Holophrase

A single-word utterance used by an infant that represents an entire sentence's worth of meaning., a single word that is used to experess a complete, meaningul thought

Naming Explosion

a sudden increase in an infant's vocabulary, especially in the number of nouns, that begins at about 18 months of age

Grammer

All the methods - word order, verb form, and so on - that languages use to communicate meaning, apart from the words themselves

Language Acquisition Device

Chomsky's term for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary, and intonation

Psychoanalytic Theory

Freudian oral fixation is satisfied by caregiver, oral pleasure is relieved, mother becomes primary security, overall responsiveness and consistency in feeding leads to a trusting relationship rather than a mistrusting one (I love you because you feed me)

Learning Theory

Mother provides food, warmth, tender touches and reassuring vocals, which elicit positive responses from the child, which attracts the caregiver, eventually the mother becomes a secondary reinforcer and attachment is made (rewardingness leads to love)

Cognitive-Developmental Theory

to form primary attachments a child must have developed a sense of object permanence, occurs at around 9 months (to love you, I must know you will be there)

Bowlby's Ethological Theory

Adaptive for survival, early predispositions promote attachment, babies are built to keep caregivers nearby, internal working model (perhaps I was born to relate and love)

Caregiving Hypothesis

Consistent caregiving leads to secure attachments

Social Stimulation Hypothesis

Children who are deprived early on do not develop normally due to a lack of stimulation rather than the lack of a mother figure caregiver

Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis

Withdrawn, apathetic, and may later develop deficits, behavior problems, and reactive attachment disorders; some believe deprivation early on affects brain development

Temperament Hypothesis

attachments are reflections of infant temperament

Developmentalist theory on Attachment

caregiving largely determines whether attachments are secure and temperament influences the type of insecurity that a child who receives insensitive caregiving might display

Attachment

An affectional bond between individuals characterized by a seeking of closeness or contact and a show of distress upon separation

Separation Anxiety

Fear of being separated from a target of attachment, usually a primary attachment

Secure Attachment

A type of attachment characterized by mild distress at leave-takings, seeking nearness to an attachment figure, and being readily soothed by the figure

Avoidant Attachment

A type of insecure attachment characterized by apparent indifference to the leave-takings of and reunions with an attachment figure

Ambivalent/Resistant Attachment

A type of insecure attachment characterized by severe distress at the leave-takings of an ambivalent behavior at reunions with an attachment figure

Disorganized-Disoriented Attachment

A type of insecure attachment characterized by dazed and contradictory behaviors toward an attachment figure

Indiscriminant Attachment

The display of attachment behaviors toward any person

Initial-Preattachment Phase

The first phase in the formation of bonds of attachment, lasting from birth to about 3 months of age and characterized by indiscriminant attachment

Attachment-in-the-Making Phase

The second phase in the development of attachment, occurring at 3 or 4 months of age and characterized by preference for familiar figures

Clear-cut- Attachment Phase

The third phase in the development of attachment, occurring at 6 or 7 months of age and characterized by intensified dependence on the primary caregiver

Contact Comfort

The pleasure derived from physical contact with another; a hypothesized need or drive for physical contact with another

Ethologist

A scientist who studies the behavior patterns that are characteristic of various species

Fixed Action Pattern (FAP)

An instinct; a stereotyped behavior pattern that is characterized of a species and is triggered by a releasing stimulus

Releasing Stimulus

A stimulus that elicits a fixed action pattern (FAP)

Social Smile

A smile that occurs in response to a human voice or face

Critical Period

A period of development during which a releasing stimulus can elicit a fixed action pattern (FAP)

Imprinting

The process by which some animals exhibit the fixed action pattern (FAP) of attachment in response to a releasing stimulus. The FAP occurs during a critical period and is difficult to modify

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)

Developmental disorders—including autism, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's disorder, and childhood disintegrative disorder—that are characterized by impairment in communication skills, social interactions, and repetitive, stereotyped behavior. Also referred to as pervasive developmental disorders

Autism

An autism spectrum disorder characterized by extreme aloneness, communication problems, intolerance of change, and ritualistic behavior

Mutism

Inability or refusal to speak

Echolalia

The automatic repetition of sounds or words

Emotion

A state of feeling that has physiological, situational, and cognitive components

Differential Emotions Theory

Izard's view that the major emotions are distinct at birth but emerge gradually in accord with maturation and the child's developing needs

Stranger Anxiety

A fear of unfamiliar people that emerges between 6 and 9 months of age. Also called fear of strangers

Social Referencing

using another person's reaction to a situation to form one's own assessment of it

Emotional Regulation

Techniques for controlling one's emotional states

Personality

An individual's distinctive ways of responding to people and events

Self-concept

One's impression of oneself; self-awareness

Separation-Individuation

The child's increasing sense of becoming separate from and independent of the mother

Temperament

Individual differences on styles of reaction that are present early in life

Goodness of fit

Agreement between the parents' expectations of or demands on the child and the child's temperamental characteristics

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