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MADE WITH LAUREN R.

Indus Valley

Pakistan is currently the area of this civilization; Thar Desert forms eastern border; early culture hearth

Himalayas

about 50 million years ago, the Indian plate and Eurasian plate collided, and the collision zone forced upward to become this; convergent boundary

landforms

the distribution of _____ is: high mountains in North, Plateau in the South, and alluvial plans in between Indo-Gangetic Plain

Alluvial plains

created by water deposits

Archipelago

island group

Atoll

islands that are low-lying tops of submerged volcanoes

Ganges River

provides water for drinking, farming, and transportation; also sacred river that brings life to people

Indo-Gangetic Plain

this plain is so fertile because of its three rivers and alluvial plains; 2nd largest population cluster

climate

wetter and cooler from west to east

monsoons

seasonal shift in winds; flooding and drought

cyclone

violent storm with fierce winds and heavy rain; most extreme weather pattern of South Asia

storm surges

high water level brought by a cyclone that swamps low-lying areas

rohini

From April to May, hottest and driest time of the year

Aryans

Invade from Persia; bring language and Hinduism

1947

India independence

Partition

The separation of India into West Pakistan, East Pakistan, and India was known as the _______ of India

Islamabad

capital of Pakistan was moved from Karachi to this city to get more people to Kashmir

Britain

(In early 1800s-1947) this country unified India by creating a single capital, railroad, lingua franca, an educated ruling class, and establishing ports

Salt March

In 1931, Gandhi protested British policy by marching to the Arabian Sea to make salt; it was illegal for Indians to grow or sell salt

Asssassinated

Gandhi was _____ while on his way to daily prayer in 1948

Nonviolent resistance

this is the name of the theory that protests should not use violence to achieve goals

Hindi

official language of India

Dravidian

spoken in Southern India

English

lingua franca of South Asia; language of government and educated; taught in schools

Hinduism

mainly in India; polytheistic, no single founder

Samsara

belief, based on your karma, you will be reborn in a next life; also known as reincarnation

Karma

All actions have future consequences—rewards or punishments in this life or the next

Dharma

duties to families and caste

Siddhartha Gautama

The founder of Buddhism; born in Nepal

Buddhism

founded in India; no supreme being; most followers in Sri Lanka

Moksha

The final release from material existence

Brahma

The creator/main god of Hinduism

Vishnu

The preserver god that is in charge of human fate of Hinduism

Shiva

The destroyer god of Hinduism

Ganesha

Shiva's son that removes obstacles; has elephant head; a god of Hinduism

Urdu

official language of Pakistan

Brahmin

highest caste; priestly

Kshatriyas

second highest caste; nobles and warriors; modern day: doctors, lawyers, and CEOs

Vaishyas

middle caste; merchants and landowners

Shudras

low caste; servants, artisans, and laborers

Dalits

also known as untouchables and harijan; lowest caste and poorest

Subsistence

this kind of farming is also known as traditional farming; predominates all others; grow only enough to feed family

microcredit

Makes small loans available to poor entrepreneurs so they can start their own small businesses

outsource

businesses do this because India has low wages, Indians speak English, 12 hour time difference, highest number of college graduates, and there is plenty of high tech infrastructure

Green Revolution

Genetically engineered crops designed to grow faster and yield more product

small farmers

these people have lost land and went into debt and don't have technology because can't afford water, electricity, etc. because of green revolution; also, women are doing all of the hard work

democracy

India is the world's largest _______

India

this country's population hit 1 billion in 2000 and will soon pass China

birth

these are the reasons India's ____ rate is high: many children common to South Asian culture; women marry at eighteen or younger; children make money; security in old age when children are present; high infant mortality rate

Land reform

A more balanced distribution of land among farmers

Sri Lanka

fighting in this country between Sinhalese and Tamils

Tamils

minority group of Sri Lanka seeking independence

Sinhalese

government of Sri Lanka are this group

global warming

Maldives have major concerns about this

labor

In Bangalore, ______ is highly skilled, can speak English, and costs 1/10 the price

squatter

these kinds of settlements make up 1/3 of population; they also cause bad economy, bad air quality, and government can't get people out

digital divide

Gap between people who can and can't afford technology

US

South Asia is half the size of this country

subcontinent

South Asia is called this; large landmass that is smaller than a continent

estuary

an arm of the sea at the lower end of a river

summer

season of monsoon with flooding

winter

season of monsoon with drought

Bangladesh

prone to flooding as a result of cyclones

convectional

summer monsoons result in this kind of precipitation

orographic

this kind of precipitation occurs during the summer monsoon in the Himalayas

low

during summer monsoons, hot air rises and creates this kind of pressure

high

during the winter monsoon, air sinks, creating this kind of pressure

Mohandas Gandhi

Used a nonviolent resistance program for Indian independence

Pakistan

Muslim country; location of Indus Valley Civilization; official language is Urdu; ally to US

Nepal

landlocked and poor; mountains; Hindu; main income from tourism

Bhutan

Buddhist; landlocked and isolated; main income from tourism

Bangladesh

Muslim; formerly East Pakistan

Sri Lanka

Buddhist; formerly known as Ceylon; makes tea; tension between Sinhalese and Tamil

Maldives

Sunni Muslim; made of 2000 coral islands; worries of global warming and flooding; mainly makes money off tourism

Puja

daily worship

White Revolution

Green revolution caused this revolution; as a result of sudden influx of money, people have been able to purchase water buffalo and other milk-producing animals

Ceylon

Sri Lanka was formerly known as this

tourism

this has been a mixed blessing for Nepal because visitors have destroyed much of land; Mostly in Nepal and Bhutan

sherpa

People from the high Himalayas that are the traditional mountain guides of the Everest region

Kashmir

The land that is claimed by India and Pakistan; India has it; ¾ of the population is Muslim

Islam

religion of Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Maldives; this religion was spread in 900 AD

Sikhism

this religion is a mix of Hinduism and Islam

child labor

Very common for children to work in labor intensive industries such as match factories

Mumbai

India's most prosperous city and leading commercial center of metals, chemicals, and electronics

Bangalore

India's high-tech center; home of hundreds of computer software companies

glocalization

The creation of products or services intended for the global market, but customized to suit the local culture

telecommunications

developments in this has helped developed culture

economic

these three things have limited Bangalore's _______ growth: Infrastructure; traffic congestion; air transportation (bad, small air ports); electricity problems

cow

In India, killing or harming this animal is prohibited

yoga

Used to heighten awareness during meditation

shrine

expressions of devotion in Hinduism

temple

places of worship in Hinduism

doubling

rapid population growth in India let to a 36 year _____ time

demographic momentum

In Stage 3 of the demographic transition model but still has a high _______ _________

education

this is the key to control population growth because it leads to better jobs and better lives for women, as well as a lower infant mortality rate

Delhi

the push factors that lead people to this city are: Work, on 2 rivers, population is 13-14 million

urban

in this setting, the caste system is not as important

migration

families still influence after this because money still needs to be sent back, they stay connected, must visit villages in harvest season

family

the _____ has problems with migration because of separation; father leaves family; moms have to keep up education; oldest boy has to take place of father

nuclear

both India and Pakistan have these kinds of weapons to fight over Kashmir

purdah

seclusion of women in Muslim countries

Varanasi

holiest site of Hinduism

river deltas

these are frequent in Bangladesh; have good soil and are subjected to lots of floods

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