measures subtle changes in brain activity through electrodes placed on the head.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
comprising the brain and the spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
comprising all over nerves in the body.
Somatic Nervous System
Responsible for voluntary movement of large skeletal muscles.
Controls the nonskeletal or smooth muscles, such as those of the heart and digestive tract.
relays sensory information; receives and directs sensory information from visual and auditory systems; and conveys information about balance and pain.
~~~~~~~ emotional center of the brain.
~~~~The wrinkled outer layer of the brain.
the right and left halves of the cerebrum.
The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres.
~~~demonstrated that the two hemispheres of the brain can operate independently of each other.
A procedure in which the bundle of fibers that connects the cerebral hemisphere ( the corpus callosum) is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizure.
bundle of neurons (axons) that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system.
individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information.
the cell body of a neuron; it contains the nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells.
a long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the neuron cell body to other neurons, or to muscles or glands.
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
some neurons having a fatty coating surrounding the axon.
knobs on the branched ends of the axon. They come very close to the cell body and dendrites of the neurons, but they do not touch.
chemical messengers, across the synapse, where they bind with receptors on subsequent dendrites.
a brief change in a neuron's electrical charge.
an electric potential that increase the likelihood that a postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials.
an electric potential that decreases the likelihood that a postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials.
a process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane.
comprises all the possible combinations of genes.
The ways in which a person's genotype is manifested in observable characteristics.
Absolute refractory period
the minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin.
An inherited characteristic that increased in a population (through natural selection) because it helped solve a problem through survival or reproduction during the time it emerged.
Research studies that asses hereditary influences by examining the resemblance between adopted children and both their biological and their adoptive parents.
Afferent Nerve Fibers
Axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body.
a chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter.
a chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter.
an interdisciplinary field that studies the influence of genetic factors on behavioral traits.
Cerebrospinal Fluis (CSF)
a solution that fills the hollow cavities (ventricles) of the brain and circulates around the brain and spinal cord.
threadlike strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic information.
a limited time span in the development of an organism when it is optical for certain capacities to emerge because the organism is especially responsive to certain experiences.
a gene that is expressed when paired genes are heterozygous (different).
Efferent Nerve Fibers
axons that carry information outward from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body.
Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)
sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate (activate) it.
a group of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloodstream that help control bodily functioning.
the entire family of internally produced chemicals that resemble opiates in structure and effects.
scientific studies in which researchers assess hereditary influences by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble each other on a specific trait.
the reproductive success ( number of descendants) of an individual organism relative to the average reproductive succes of the population.
the largest and most complicated region of the brain, encompassing a variety of structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum.
Fraternal (dizygotic) twins
twins that result when two eggs are fertilized simultaneously by different sperm cells, forming two separate zygotes.
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmissions.
the process of determining the location and chemical sequence of specific genes on specific chromosomes.
the situations that occurs when two genes in a specific pair are different.
the part of the brain that includes the cerebellum and two structures found in the lower part of the brainstem: the medulla and the pons.
the situation that occurs when two genes in a specific pair are the same.
the chemical substance released by the endocrine glands.
a structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs.
Identical (monozygotic) twins
twins that emerge from one zygote that splits for unknown reasons.
the sum of an individual's own reproductive succes plus the effects the organism has on the reproductive success of related others.
destroying a piece of the brain.
the segment of the brain stem that lies between the hindbrain and the forebrain.
a mating system in which one male and one female exclusively, or almost exclusively with each other.
a spontaneous, heritable change in a piece of DNA that occurs in the individual organism.
Principle stating that heritable characteristics that provide a survival reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be "selected" over time.
the branch of the autonomic nervous system that generally reserves bodily resources.
what each sex invests- in terms of time, energy, survival risk, and foregone opportunities- to reproduce and nurture offsprings.
Left-right imbalances between the cerebral hemisphere in the speed of visual and auditory processing.
the "master gland" of the endocrine system; it releases a great variety of hormones that fan out through the body, stimulating actions in other endocrine glands.
a mating system in which each female seeks to mate with multiple males, while each male only mates with one female.
characteristics that are influenced by more than one pair of genes.
a mating system in which each male seeks to mate with multiple females, while each female mates only with one male.
Postsynaptic potential (PSP)
a voltage change at the receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane.
a gene whose influenced is masked when paired genes are different (heterozygous).
The stable, negative charge of a neuron when it is inactive.
the branch of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the body's resources for emergencies.
a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to the next.
a microscopic gap between the terminal button of a neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron.
a research design in which hereditary influence is assessed by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins with respect to a trait.
a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg.