Biomolecules

Created by kwfreeman_101 

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Mosely 9th grade Pre-AP

nucleic acid

a macromolecule that carries genetic information or forms structure within cells

nucleotide

in a nucleic acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogenus base

DNA

the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics

RNA

a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis

catalyze

substances that reduce the activation energy of a chemical reaction

substrate

a substance on which an enzyme acts during a chemical reaction

active site

the site on an enzyme that attatches to a substrate

product

newly formed substrates

amylase

an enzyme that breaks down starches into sugars

catalase

an enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water

polymerase

an enzyme that writes DNA strand and prevents errors in genetic code

collagen

makes things firmer (like jello)

Benedict's Reagent

a chemical solution used to detect the presence of glucose and other reducing sugars

Buiret Reagent

tests for the presence of proteins

Iodine Reagent

dissolving iodine in water in the presence of potassium iodide

How do enzymes work

they break down

Proteins ex.

ex. meats, animal products, legumes, grains, and nuts

Lipids ex.

ex. oil, waxes, and vitamins

Carbohydrates ex.

sugar, starch, and breatds

nucleic acid ex.

DNA and RNA

organic compound

a biomolecule that is produced by a living organism

macromolecule

a large molecule made of many smaller molecules

enzyme

proteins that catalyze chemical reactions

metabolism

the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism

nutrients

a substance that provides nourishment need for life processes

amino acids

the building blocks of proteins

digestion

the breaking down of food into chemical substances that can be used for energy

glucose

sugar

lipids

a broad group of molecules which include fats, waxes, several vitamins

carbohydrates

a molecule that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

lipids

a broad group of molecules that store energy, making the structure of cell membranes and cellular signalling

proteins

large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids

nucleic acids

a macromolecule that carries genetic information or form structures within cells

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

3 elements that make up all carbohydrates

starches

the carbohydrate plants use this to store extra sugar

cellular respiration

sugar is broken down and turned into ATP that gives cells the energy they need

blood sugar

condition people suffer from that by eating breads, potatoes, and other starches

What is blood sugar

level drops or goes increasingly high

nucleic acid

amino acids joined together to form a macromolecule

proteins

enzymes hormones and antibodies are part of which biomolecule

lipid bilayer other name

lipid membranes

lipid bilayer

help maintain homeostasis

oxygen and hydrogen

lipids are a compound made up of

triglycerides

the lipid most commonly consumed

saturated

containing the maximum amount of solute capable of being dissolved

monounsaturated

lack hydrogen bond on the carbon chain

polyunsaturated

double bonds unsaturated by hydrogen atoms

adipose tissue

triglycerides are stored in......

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