phylum characterized by a dorsal nerve chord, notochord, post anal tail and pharyngeal slits
firm rod like structure that runs longitudinal and dorsal to the digestive tract and it provides support
Slits used for filter feeding in primitive chordates and have been adapted for other functions in more highly evolved chordates; a common feature of all chordates.
the only subphylum that retains all of its embryonic characteristics; includes lancelets
This subphylum of Chordata is composed of marine animals that look like small sacs, the adults are sessile, filter sea water through slits, no notochord, nerve cord, or tail, larva are free swimming with all features, common name: Tunicates
The skull of cartilage, no vertebrae; retain notochord as adult. Ex: Hagfish
group of cells that develop from the nerve cord and can form portions of the brain & skull, certain sense organs and nerve fibers
One Chinese fossil that is considered to be a missing link between cephalochordates and vertebrates, because it has eyes, denticles, and seems to have a brain. (Otherwise, it resembles the lancelet.)
This subphylum of Chordata exhibits the following trends in animal evolution: tube-within-a-tube body plan (complete digestive system), bilateral symmetry, cephalization, triploblastic, and coelomate
An early, soft-bodied vertebrate with prominent eyes and dental elements.
The vertebrate subgroup that possess jaws.
Lateral line system
sensitive receptor system that enables fish to detect gentle currents and vibrations in the water
earliest gnathostomes in the fossil record that are an extinct lineage of armored vertebrates
Class of extinct jawed fish, most small & weakly armored, operculum gill cover, ancestor of modern bony fishes
member of the class Chondrichthyes, vertebrates with skeletons made mostly of cartilage, such as sharks and rays
deep-water, cartilaginous fishes grouped separately because of their unique features
a muscular cavity at the end of the large intestine through which digestive wastes, urine, and eggs or sperm leave the body
member of a vertebrate subgroup with jaws and mostly bony skeletons
In aquatic osteichthyans, a protective bony flap that covers and protects the gills.
an air-filled sac near the spinal column in many fishes that helps maintain buoyancy
ray finned fish
lobe finned fish
lobed finned fish (extant: coelocanths & extinct: rhipidistans)
bony fishes of the southern hemisphere that breathe by a modified air bladder as well as gills (lungfish)
vertebrate animals having four feet, legs or leglike appendages
Members of the class of amphibian, need water for reproduction
order of salamanders (visible tail)
frogs and toads; eggs fertilized externally; "without tail"
Blind, limbless amphibians usually underground
A major lineage of vertebrates (Amniota) that reproduce with amniotic eggs. Includes all reptiles (including birds) and mammals.
an embryonic membrane sac that stores wastes and is the site for gas exchange
thin innermost membranous sac enclosing the developing embryo of higher vertebrates (reptiles, birds and mammals)
outermost layer of the two membranes surrounding the embryo; it forms the fetal part of the placenta
The membrane that is attached to a vertebrate embryo and that encloses the yolk;stores energy reserves for the developing embryo.
any ectothermic vertebrate of the class Reptilia including tortoises turtles snakes lizards alligators crocodiles and extinct forms
Rely on environment for body temperature, low metabolic rates
Organisms with bodies that are warmed by heat generated by metabolism. This heat is usually used to maintain a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment
The first major group of reptiles, appearing as large, stocky, quadrupedal herbivores.
The reptilian group that includes lizards, snakes, and two species of New Zealand animals called tuataras.
The reptilian group that includes crocodiles, alligators, dinosaurs, and birds.
first tetrapods to exhibit flapping flight
What animals are alligators and crocodiles most closely related to?
Class Reptilia, Order Testudines; anapsid
From an evolutionary context, which group of vertebrates first evolved 4-chambered hearts?
Mammary glands, Hair, dermal fat, Larger brain, 4 chambered heart, Endothermic; high metabolic rate, Teeth adapted to diet (highly variable), Remodeled jaw
subclass of mammals that have hair and mammary glands but reproduce by laying eggs
mammals of which the females have a pouch (the marsupium) containing the teats where the young are fed and carried
Placental mammal; mammal whose young complete their embryonic development within the uterus, joined to the mother by the placenta.