DJHS Acids and Bases test- Enloe

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Acid

sour taste

Base

bitter taste

base

slippery

Acid and Base

often corrosive

base

exists as a crystalline solid in an undissolved state

acid

produces hydrogen ions in solution

base

produces hydroxide ions in solution

acid and base

is an electrolyte

acid and base

can be detected with an indicator

base

soaps

acid and base

may be used to make fertilizer

acid

used in pickling

acid

produces hydronium ions

acid

Most compounds that produce this in aqueous solution are ionic

acid

exists in aqueous solution

acid

HCl is an example

base

Ammonia is a common example

acid and base

conducts electricity

acid

any substance that produces hydrogen ions. H+, in a water solution

base

Any substance that forms hydroxide ions, OH-, in a water solution

buffer

solution containing ions that react with added acids or bases and minimize their effects on pH

hydronium

H3O+ ions, which form when an acid dissolves in water and H+ ions interact with water

indicator

organic compound that changes color in acids or bases

neutralization

chemical reaction that occurs when the H30+ ions from an acid react with the OH- ions from a base t produce water molecules

pH

A measure of the concentration of hydronium ions in a solution using a scale ranging from 0 to 14, with 0 being the most acidic and 14 being the most-basic

salt

a compound formed when the negative ions from an acid combine with the positive ions from a base

soaps

organic salts with nonpolar, hydrocarbon ends that interact with oils and dirt and polar ends thats helps them dissolve in water

strong acid

any acid that dissociates almost completely in solution

strong base

any base that dissociates completely in solution

titration

process in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution

weak acid

any acid that only partly dissociates in solution

weak base

any base that does not dissociate completely in solution

acid

proton donor

Properties of Acids

Sour taste, corrosive liquids, turn litmus red

Hydrochloric

HCl-
Gastric juice in stomach, pickling steel

Phosphoric

H3PO4-
Detergents and fertilizers

Sulfuric

(Battery Acid)
H2SO4-
Batteries/ Fertilizer

What do all acids have in common?

They all start with Hydrogen (H)

Base

proton acceptor

Properties of Base

bitter taste, slippery, Crystalline solid in the undissolved state, corrosive, turns litmus blue

Calcium Hydroxide

Ca(OH)2

Magnesium Hydroxide

Mg(OH)2
laxative

Sodium Hydroxide

NaOH
soap-making, drain cleaner

Ammonia

NH3

Dissociation of Acids

When an acid dissolves in water, the negative areas of near by water molecules attract the positive hydrogen in the acid- Hydronium ions formed (H3O+)

Dissociation of Bases

When bases that contain -OH dissolve in water, the negative areas of near by water molecules attract the positive ion in the base- Hydroxide (-OH) ions produced

strong acids

HCl, HNO3, H2SO4

strong base

NaOH

weak acids

acetic and carbonic acid

weak base

Ammonia

concentration

The amount of an acid or base dissolved in water

pH scale

A measurement of the concentration of H+ ions in solution

The greater the H+ ion concentration the ___ pH.

lower

7.4

pH of blood

Acidosis

When blood pH drops below 7.4, the body enters _____.

alkalosis

When blood pH rises above 7.4, the body enters _____.

pH above 7

Basic

pH below 7

Acidic

Neutralization

A chemical reaction between an acid and a base

Neutralization

Acid + Base ---> Water + Salt

Salts

Composed of a metal and a nonmetal other than oxygen, or a metal and a polyatomic ion

Soaps an Detergents

organic salts

soaps and detergents

have a polar head and non polar tail

saponification

process of soap making

Detergents

Similar to soap but without soap scum

strength

how much it dissociates

concentration

how much it dissolves

Anthocyanin

Chemical indicator that is found in red cabbage juice

endpoint

Point where indicator changes color in titration

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