Board Questions

Created by JHuguelet 

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46 terms

The pH range of acidulated fluoride gels is in the range of:
a. 1 to 3
b. 3 to 5
c. 5 to 7
d. 7 to 9
e. 9 to 11

b. 3 to 5

Which of the following is the most stable reaction product of a topical application of fluoride?
a. fluorapatite
b. hydroxyapatite
c. ionized fluoride
d. calcium fluoride

a. fluorapatite

Ingestion of fluoridated water from birth has been shown to reduce tooth decay in children by approximately what percent?
a. 40%
b. 60%
c. 80%
d. 90%

b. 60%

Fluorosis may result if excessive fluoride is consumed during which of the following stages of tooth development?
a. initiation
b. apposition
c. calcification
d. proliferation

c. calcification

Ideally, the optimum concentration of fluoride in community drinking water is in the range of
a. 0.2 to 1.0 ppm
b. 0.7 to 1.2 ppm
c. 1.0 to 2.0 ppm
d. 1.2 to 2.5 ppm

b. 0.7 to 1.2 ppm

Which of the following is a symptom of chronic fluoride toxicity?
a. enamel hypoplasia
b. enamel hyperplasia
c. enamel decalcification
d. enamel hypercalcification
e. amelogenesis imperfecta

a. enamel hypoplasia

When ingested, 90-95% of fluoride is absorbed through the
a. oral mucosa
b. large instestine
c. enamel and the dentin
d. stomach and small intestine

d. stomach and small intestine

Approved fluoride compounds found in over-the-counter dentrifices include
1. sodium fluoride
2. stannous fluoride
3. sodium monofluorophosphate
4. acidulated phosphate fluoride

a. 1, 2, & 3
b. 1 & 4
c. 2, 3, & 4
d. 4 only
e. all of the above

a. 1, 2, & 3

Which of the following are advantages of a school-based fluoride rinse program?
1. It is effective in reducing dental caries
2. It can be implemented by non-dental personnel
3. It can achieve maximum effectiveness with monthly application
4. It is the least expensive method to administer fluoride

a. 1 & 2 only
b. 1, 2, & 4
c. 1, 3, & 4
d. 3 & 4 only
e. all of the above

a. 1 & 2 only

Which of the following are symptoms of acute fluoride toxicity?
1. cramps
2. vomiting
3. diarrhea
4. hypotension
5. constipation

a. 1, 2, & 3
b. 1, 2, & 4
c. 1, 2, & 5
d. 1, 3, & 4
e. 2, 4, & 5
f. all of the above

a. 1, 2, & 3

Which of the following types and concentrations of fluoride should be recommended to a head and neck cancer patient for home-care custom tray use?
1. 0.4% stannous fluoride
2. 1% neutral sodium fluoride
3. 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride

a. 1 & 2
b. 1 & 3
c. 2. & 3
d. all of the above

a. 1 & 2

Repeated topical application of a fluoride agent does not produce tooth mottling because applied fluoride is neutralized by the calcium in saliva.
a. Both statement and reason are correct and related
b. Both statement and reason are correct but not related
c. The statement is correct but the reason is not
d. The statement is not correct but the reason is an accurate statement
e. Neither statement nor reason is correct

c. The statement is correct but the reason is not

Which of the following arguments against fluoridating public water supplies are used by antifluoridationists?
1. Fluroide increases the risk of birth defects
2. Fluroide increases the risk of coancer
3. The addition of fluoride to public drinking water is unconstitutional

a. 1 & 2
b. 1 & 3
c. 2 & 3
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Which of the following is characteristic of a fluoride regime that enhances remineralization?
a. A high concentration used daily
b. A low concentration used daily
c. A high concentration used every 6 months
d. A low concentration used every six months

b. A low concentration used daily

Staining of carious and precarious tooth surfaces occurs with the use of:
a. stannous fluoride
b. sodium fluoride
c. sodium silicofluoride
d. sodium monofluorophosphate
e. acidulated phosphate fluoride

a. stannous fluoride

Most inorganic matter of teeth occurs as:
a. fluorapatite
b. hydroxyapatite
c. carbonate-apatite
d. octocalcium phosphate
e. amorphous calcium phosphate

b. hydroxyapatite

In communities without fluoridated water supplies, the most cost effective method of delivering systemic fluoride to 6 to 12 year old children is through:
a. fluoride tablets
b. school water fluoridation
c. brushing with a fluoride gel
d. a fluoride mouthrinse program

b. school water fluoridation

Which of the following factors need not be considered in deciding whether pediatric fluoride supplements should be prescribed?
a. age of the patient
b. amount of the fluoride in the drining water
c. conscientiousness of the patient or parents
d. type of topical fluoride applied professionally

d. type of topical fluoride applied professionally

A 3 year old child who lives in a nonfluoridated area has rampant decay. Whihc of the following home-care regimens, with parental supervision, is suitable for this child?
1. Fluoride tablets
2. Fluoride dentifrice
3. Fluoride mouthrinse
4. Brush-on fluoride gel

a. 1 or 2 only
b. 1, 2, or 4
c. 1 or 4 only
d. 2 or 3
e. 3 or 4
f. any of the above

b. 1, 2, or 4

Which of the following are side effects of a topical application of stannous fluoride solution?
1. mottled enamel
2. brown staining
3. gingival reaction
4. reduced salivary flow
5. diminished taste acuity

a. 1 and 2
b. 1 and 4
c. 2 and 3
d. 3 and 5
e. 4 and 5

c. 2 and 3

Which of the following methods of fluoride therapy may affect morphology of the dentition?
1. Water fluoridation
2. diet supplement program
3. self-applied fluoride
4. professionally applied topical fluoride

a. 1 and 2
b. 1 and 3
c. 1 and 4
d. 2 and 3
e. 2 and 4
f. 3 and 4

a. 1 and 2

Which of the following factors are most important to consider in determining the appropriate fluoride level for a public water supply?
1. average water consumption
2. hardness of the water supply
3. average size of the school districts
4. average maximum daily air temperature
5. popluation under age 18 served by the water supply

a. 1, 3, and 5
b. 1 and 4
c. 2 and 4
d. 3 and 5 only

b. 1 and 4

At age 11, an individual who has lived in a nonfluoridated community since birth moves to an area in whihc the water contain 10 ppm of fluoride. At age 35, he is likely to exhibit which of the following?
a. Osteoporosis
b. severe dental fluorosis
c. a 60% reduction in dental caries
d. increased fluoride stored in his bones

d. increased fluoride stored in his bones

Which of the following areas of the teeth are most likely to have the greatest uptake of topical fluoride?
a. pits and fissures
b. areas of demineralization
c. interproximal contact areas
d. lingual surfaces of posterior teeth
e. occlusal surfaces of newly erupted teeth

b. areas of demineralization

In addition to professionally-applied fluoride, which of the following are recommended for a caries-prone 10 year old child who resides in a fluoridated community?
a. fluoride dentifrice and dietary fluoride supplements
b. fluoride dentifrice and low concentration fluoride mouthrinse
c. fluoride dentifrice and high concentration fluoride mouthrinse
d. dietary fluoride supplements and high concentration fluoride mouthrinse

b. fluoride dentifrice and low concentration fluoride mouthrinse

If the existing fluoride content of a water supply in the desert Southwest is 0.3 ppm, what amount of fluoride should be added to achieve the optimum recommended level?
a. 0.4 ppm
b. 0.7 ppm
c. 1.0 ppm
d. 1.3 ppm

a. 0.4 ppm

Acidulated phosphate fluoride is contraindicated for use on whihc of the following?
1. gold crowns
2. porcelain crowns
3. composite veneers
4. zinc oxide-eugenol temporary restorations

a. 1, 2, and 3
b. 1 and 4
c. 2 and 3 only
d. 2, 3, and 4
e. all of the above

c. 2 and 3 only

how does the fluoride ion affect crystal size and solubility of the hydroxyapatite crystal?
a. crystal size increases; solubility increases
b. crystal size increases; solubility decreases
c. crystal size decreases; solubility increases
d. crystal size decreases; solubility decreases

b. crystal size increases; solubility decreases

If a child accidentally ingests a toxic quantity of fluoride, the hygienist should:
a. induce vomiting by physical or chemical means
b. force fluid to dilute the fluoride concentration
c. have the child eat high fiber foods to speed elimination of fluoride
d. have the child drink a sodium bicarbonate solution to neutralize toxicity of the fluoride

a. induce vomiting by physical or chemical means

Which of the following dosages of a fluoride tablet supplement should be prescrived for a preschooler who consumes optimally fluoridated drinking water?
a. 0.25 mg
b. 0.50 mg
c. 1.00 mg
d. none of the above

d. none of the above

Which of the following paired water fluoride concentrations and individuals is most likely to result in moderate fluorosis but not systemic toxicity?
a. 1 ppm in a 4 year old child
b. 3 ppm in a 6 year old child
c. 8 ppm in a 7 year old child
d. 10 ppm in an 18 year old adult

b. 3 ppm in a 6 year old child

Fluoride toxicity manifests in bones as
a. rickets
b. osteoporosis
c. hypercalcemia
d. osteosclerosis
e. Paget's disease

d. osteosclerosis

Fluoridation of municipal water supplies is often accomplished by adding appropriate amounts of what type of fluoride to the water?
a. calcium fluoride
b. stannous fluoride
c. phosphate fluoride
d. sodium silicofluoride

d. sodium silicofluoride

daily use of fluoride gel in custom trays is indicated for which fo the following?
1. children too young to brush
2. patients with full mouth rehabilitation
3. patients undergoing head and neck radiation therapy
4. patients with tooth-borne complete dentures (overdentures)

a. 1 and 2
b. 1 and 3
c. 1 and 4
d. 2 and 3
e. 2 and 4
f. 3 and 4

f. 3 and 4

Application of which of the following reduces root hypersensitivity?
1. eugenol
2. topical fluoride
3. potassium nitrate
4. hydrogen peroxide

a. 1 or 3
b. 1 or 4
c. 2 or 3
d. 2 or 4
e. 3 or 4
f. any of the above

c. 2 or 3

Fluorides are thought to protect teeth from caries by which of the following mechanisms?
1. antibacterial action
2. inhibition of glycolysis
3. reduction in plaque adhesion
4. reduction in enamel solubility
5. enhancement of remineralization

a. 1, 2, 4, and 5
b. 1, 3, and 4
c. 1, 3, and 5
d. 2, 3, 4, and 5
e. all of the above

e. all of the above

The 2 most common causes of death in acute fluoride poisoning are:
1. liver damage
2. renal failure
3. cardiac failure
4. respiratory paralysis

a. 1 and 2
b. 1 and 3
c. 1 and 4
d. 2 and 3
e. 2 and 4
f. 3 and 4

f. 3 and 4

Unless there is some clinical reason for polishing, the pumice prophylaxis may be omitted prior to fluoride treatments because:
1. pumice reacts with fluorapatite
2. pumice prophylaxis selectively remove hyroxyl ions from enamel
3. prophylaxis removes the fluoride rich outer layer of enamel
4. polishing predisposes gingival margins to fluoride sensitivity
5. fluoride can be absorbed from plaque or pellicle, both of which concentrate fluorides

a. 1 and 3
b. 1 and 4
c. 2 and 4
d. 2 and 5
e. 3 and 5
f. all of the above

f. all of the above

The MOST common adverse reaction to fluoride toxicity is (are)
a. nausea
b. diahhrea
c. abdominal cramping
d. respiratory distress
e. cardiac irregularities

a. nausea

Current research suggest that antimicrobial agents do each of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is the exception?
a. alter the bacterial cell wall
b. reduce the formation of pellicle
c. change the metabolism of bacteria
d. increase the specificity of microbes
e. decrease the bacteria's attachment to tooth surfaces

b. reduce the formation of pellicle

72 year old male, recession, 1 previous restoration, uses listerine, brushes with baking soda. Forgot to tell RDH at last visit that he was taking antihypertensive and diuretic for about 1 year. Denies any changes in OH. Which of the following represents the MOST important reason for these findings?
a. improper brushing
b. use of baking soda
c. flossing technique
d. use of over the counter mouthwash
e. side effects of the prescribed medications

e. side effects of the prescribed medications

How does the fluoride ion affect size and solubility of the hydroxyapatite crystal?
a. crystal size increases; solubility increases
b. crystal size increases; solubility decreases
c. crystal size decreases; solubility increases
d. crystal size decreases; solubility decreases

b. crystal size increases; solubility decreases

A mother routinely gave her 2 year old child a bottle at bedtime containing a variety of liquids. This practice resulted in the rampant decay of the child's teeth. Each of the following liquids contributed to the child's condition EXCEPT one. Which one is the exception?
a. diluted milk
b. nonfluoridated water
c. organic baby formula
d. unsweetened apple juice
e. freshly squeezed orange juice

b. nonfluoridated water

A 14 year old girl with generalized, moderate gingivitis, who bleeds upon probing should be instructed to use which of the following first?
a. soft toothbrush
b. disclosing solution
c. antimicrobial rinse
d. rubber tip stimulator
e. oral irrigating device

a. soft toothbrush

a 63 year odl patient has been receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Examination reveals multiple areas of cervical caries. This condition MOST likely resulted from which of the following?
a. accumulation of calculus
b. change in dietary habits
c. dysfunctional salivary glands
d. change in types of oral bacteria
e. excessive radiation to the dentition

c. dysfunctional salivary glands

Fluorides are chiefly eliminated through which of the following?
a. liver
b. kidneys
c. pancreas
d. small intestine
e. large intestine

b. kidneys

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