History Exam 3 (Notes)

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Constitutional Convention- number of delegates

52 delegates

Constitutional Convention- location

Philidelphia

The Constitution

conservative document that quieted rebellion

Constitutional Convention- the meeting

sworn to secrecy. open debate without public interferance

The Constitution- signed by how many people

39 delgates

The Constitutional Convention- how many states signed

9 states signed

3 Things the Constitution dealt with

liberty vs order
freedom vs authority
power of federal government vs power of state and local government

What did the new republican government have?

executive branch of government; checks and balances; it was a democracy, republic, and a monarchy in one; government could tax the people, states had power

The intent of the constitution was to give who the power?

Congress, not the president

question brought up by the constitution

who has the authority to call something unconstitutional

Federalists and the constitution

Pro- constitution

Anti-federalists

anit- constitution

how did the states ratify the constitution?

state conventions

federalist papers

defended the constitution

2 states that resisted ratification and why

Rhode Island and North Carolina, because the wanted a bill of rights

How did New York ratify the constitution?

with the help of Alexander Hamilton

3 problems that the nation faced in making the nation work

1) what is the nation's destiny?
2) what type of national government is needed?
3) who is going to control the government

the early division in politics

Federalists and anti federalists

who led the federalists?

Alexander Hamilton

who led the anti-federlalists?

Thomas Jefferson and James Madison

Federalists favored who?

the wealthy and educated- the natural aristocracy

the anti-federalists (republicans) favored who?

farmers and western expansion

Jefferson wanted the powers to be-

balance between federal government and state government powers

Views on the French Revolution for the feds/anti-feds?

Hamilton-hated the French Rev.
Jefferson-pro French Rev.

Federalists interpretation of the constitution

broad interpretation

Anti-federalists interpretation fo the constitution

strick interpretation

Hamilton and the national bank

Hamilton wanted to pay off all debs and wanted to tie America's wealth to the government

Jefferson and the national bank

Jefferson did not like the national bank

America position during France and England's war

America declared neutrality, but traded with both governments

Hamilton during the French and English war-

almost persuaded president to fight the French, but really wanted an army against the republicans (anti-federalists)

Alien-Sedition Act

an attempt to shut-up republicans

"Alien" in the Alien-Sedition Act-

aimed at stopping french immigrants from joining the Republicans. French took 14 years to become a citizen.

"Sedition" in the Alien-Sedition Act-

direct attempt to deny 1st ammendment. Any person who criticized the government was put in jail.

Jefferson and Madison's response to the Alien-Sedition Act-

Kentucky and Virginian legislatures questioned who has the right to call something unconstitutional.

the election 1800 transferred power from-

Federalists to anti-federalists
from the aristocracy to the people

election of 1800 winner

Jefferson

"what makes a great president"

pushing the limits of the constitution

3 things that Jefferson did during his presidency?

1)renewal of the national bank
2)The Louisiana purchase
3)Embargo of 1807'

The Louisiana Purchase

purchased by Jefferson from Napolean Bonapart for $15 million. doubled the nation's size. defeated out the federalists

Embargo Act of 1807

forbid American ships to trade with France or England during their war.

Madison's presidency

1808 became president
1812- went to Congress to declare war on England

war of 1812

America's 2nd war for independence

Britain's ploys

Burned the capital, tired to invade Baltimore

Star Spangled Banner

written by Francis Scott Key at Baltimore

treaty between England and America

1814, treaty of Ghent

Battle at New Orleans

Andrew Jackson and his troops beat out English even though the war was technically over.

4 things that came out of the American "victory" in 1812.

1) brought national unity
2) respect from Europeans
3) allowed Indians to be defeated in the west
4) brought about victory for the Republicans

Hartford convention

radical federalist meeting, they wanted more power. Their meeting ended badly, they looked like traitors.

Supreme Court's power

Supreme Court has no power from the constitution to declare things unconstitutional

head judge of the supreme court

John Marshall-federalist

Judicial review

regard of the federal law to the Constitution

What did John Marshall accomplish in office?

judicial review and created the 3rd branch of government

president elected in 1816

Monroe

2 guiding forces in America after 1815

Manifest Destiny, Sectionalism

Manifest Destiny-

aka Henry Clay's "American Way" American Christians believed the Kingdom of God would start in America and spread across world. America had first democracy for hundreds of years. unique events to make settlements of wilderness

Sectionalism

sectionalism in between the North and the South (because of slavery)

average american became...

a pioneer

what gave America a sense of destiny (3)

1) America left Europe behind after 1814
2) great migration went west
3) politics grew

America leaving Europe behind after 1814

Monroe signed treaties for more land west. Signed treaties with Britain to stabilize northern borders. Bought Florida from Spain for $5 million. The Monroe Doctrine.

The Great Migration-

Americans moved west. 8 new western states. population was growing.

politics

2 party system grew. common man was involved in politics. Jackson started the 2 party system so stop the reign of Republicans. Started the Democratic party.

Jackson's presidency

Trail of tears to Oklahoma,
Annexed Texas and fought Mexico, brought tariffs.

2 things that almost split America

States rights vs Federal gov't
Slavery

Tariffs of Abomination

changed the Souths perception of the union.

Annexation of Missouri

held the balance to become free or slave.

Talmage's idea to save the union

amended Missouri's constitution. If MO became a slave state, no more slaves would be allowed int MO. also any slave over the age of 25 could be freed. It failed

Missouri Compromise made by

Henry Clay

canals

introduced in 1817 by Clinton allowed Midwest to grow agriculture commercially

Erie canal

from Albany to great lakes. Clinton payed $7 million for it. shipping dropped by 90%

Steamboat

Revolutionized commercial trade on the Mississippi river.

the "invention supreme" of transportation

the Railroads

competition against the canals

the railroads

where was most of the railroads built?

in the north

railroads and time zones?

to standardize train schedules

Erie railroad

436 miles of train

evolution of transportation after railroad

1888 automobile, 1903 airplanes, 1928 first transcontinental flight

telegraph- when and what did it do?

1845, brought the civil war into the living rooms of families

Rotary Press

mass production of newspapers and brought down the price of news

photographs

let the people know what war was like. Able to see the dead bodies of the battlefields in their living rooms

telephone

1870

radio

1923

television

1929

color tv

1939

significance of the developments of politics, transportation, and communication

they were all happening simultaneously to transform America

What helped develop the national economy?

Industrialization

economies of the northeast, northwest, and the south

NE-industrialization NW-commercial agriculture S-Cotton and slavery

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