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what causes protein denaturation in femented milk?

acid produced by microbial activity

what is used as a starter culture in milk?

lactobacillus spp
lactococcus lactis

what is the optimum temperature to incubate femented milk?

25-30 C

how do you make the buttery flavor?

lactococcus lactis converts citrate to diacetyl (buttery flavor)

what is the starter culture ratio of yogurt?

strptococcus theomphilus and lactobacillus
1:1

how is curd created?

acid coagulates milk

what can be used instead of lactic acid fermentation to make curd?

rennin from genetically egnineered microbes

how do you make blue cheese?

pencillium roqueforti spore

how do you make camembert?

pencillium camemberti

what does ripening do to cheeses?

hardens the cheese

what creates carbon dioxide holes in swiss cheese?

propionibacterium

what is curd in cheese?

solid casein from lactic acid bacteria and rennin

what is why?

liquid separated from curd

how is hard cheese produced?

by lactic acid bacteria

how is semisoft cheese ripened?

on a penicillium surface

what are examples of beneficial microbes in meats?

cured hams
salami

what is used for sausage making?

pediococcus cerevisesiae
lactobacillius plantarum

how is sour dough bread made?

yeast undergo alcohol fermentation

what causes breads to rise?

carbon dioxide raises
ethanol from yeast bakes off

what gives sour dough bread the acid taste?

Lactobacillu

what converts sugar to ethyl alcohol and co2?

saccharomyces cereviseiae

what converts malic acid to lactic acid?

lactic acid bacteria

what is the function of acetobacter or gluconobacter?

converts ethyl alcohol to acetic acid (vinegar)

what fermenting bacteria is used in country cured hams?

aspergillus
penicium spp.

what fermenting bacteria is found in fish sauces?

halophillic bacillus spp

what is used to ferment coffee beans?

erwinia dissolvens
saccharomyces spp

what is used to ferment olives

leuconostoc mesenteroides

what is used to ferment san francisco sour dough bread?

lactobacillus sanfrancisco

what are examples of extracted substances in industrial microbiology? (6)

amino acids
citric acid
enzymes
vitamins
antibiotics
steroids

how is cellulase produced

trichoderma viride

how is lipase produced?

aspergillus iger

what is lipase used in

laundry dtergent, tanning leather

waht is cellulase use din?

fruit juices, coffee, paper

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