Management Exam #2

141 terms by sipatterson

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Ethics

the set of moral principles or values that defines right or wrong for a person or group

Ethical Behavior

behavior that conforms to a society's accepted principles of right and wrong

Workplace Deviance

unethical behavior that violates organizational norms about right and wrong

Production Deviance

unethical behavior that hurts the quality and quantity of work produced

Property Deviance

unethical behavior aimed at the organization's property or products

Employee Shrinkage

employee theft of company merchandise

Political Deviance

using one's influence to harm others in the company

Personal Aggression

hostile or aggressive behavior toward others

Ethical Intensity

the degree of concern people have about an ethical issue

Magnitude of Consequences

the total harm or benefit derived from an ethical decision

Social Consensus

agreement on whether behavior is bad or good

Probability of Effect

the chance that something will happen and then harm others

Temporal Immediacy

the time btwn an act and the consequences the act produces

Proximity of Effect

the social, psychological, cultural, or physical distance btwn a decision maker and those affected by his or her decisions

Concentration of Effect

the total harm or benefit that an act produces on the average person

Preconventional Level of Moral Development

the level of moral development in which people make decisions based on selfish reasons

Conventional Level of Moral Development

the level of moral development in which people make decisions that conform to societal expectations

Postconventional Level of Moral Development

the level of moral development in which people make decisions based on internalized principles

Priniciple of Long Term Self Interest

an ethical principle that holds that you should never take an action that is not in your or your organizations long term self interest

Principle of Personal Virtue

an ethical principle that holds that you should never do anything that is not honest, open, and truthful and that you would not be glad to see reported in the newspapers or on TV

Principle of Religious Injuctions

an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that is not kind and that does not build a sense of community

Principle of Government Requirements

an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that violates the law, for the law represents the minimal moral standard

Principle of Utilitarian Benefits

an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that does not result in greater good for society

Priniciple of Individual Rights

an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that infringes on others' agreed-upon rights

Principle of Distributive Justice

an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that harms the least fortunate among us: the poor, the uneducated, the unemployed

Overt Integrity Test

a written test that estimates job applicants' honesty by directly asking them what they think or feel about theft or about punishment of unethical behaviors

Personality Based Integrity Test

a written test that indirectly estimates job applicants' honesty by measuring psychological traits such as dependability and conscientiousness

Whistleblowing

reporting others' ethics violations to management or legal authorities

Social Responsibility

a business's obligation to pursue policies, make decisions, and take actions that benefit society

Shareholder Model

a view of social responsibility that holds that an organization's overriding goal should be to maximize profit for the benefit of shareholders

Stakeholder Model

a theory of corporate responsibility that holds that management's most important responsibility, long term survival, is achieved by satisfying that interests of multiple corporate stakeholders

Stakeholders

persons or groups w/ a "stake" or legitimate interest in a company's actions

Primary Stakeholder

any group on which an organization relies for it long term survival

Secondary Stakeholder

any group that can influence or be influenced by a company and can affect public perceptions about its socially responsible behavior

Economic Responsibility

the expectation that a company will make a profit by producing a valued product or service

Legal Responsibilty

a company's social responsibility to obey society's laws and regulations

Ethical Responsibility

a company's social responsibility not to violate accepted principle of right and wrong when conducting business

Discretionary Responsibility

the expectation that a company will voluntarily serve a social role beyond its economic, legal and ethical responsibilities

Social Responsiveness

refers to a company's strategy for responding to stakeholders' expectations concerning economic, legal, ethical, or discretionary responsibility

Reactive Strategy

a social responsiveness strategy in which a company does less than society expects

Defensive Strategy

a social responsiveness strategy in which a company admits responsibility for a problem but does the least required to meet societal expectations

Accommodative Strategy

a social responsiveness strategy in which a company accepts responsibility for a problem and does all that society expects to solve that problem

Proactive Strategy

a social responsiveness strategy in which a company anticipates responsibility for a problem before it occurs and does more than society expects to address the problem

Motivation

the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal

Needs

the physical or psychological requirements that must be met to ensure survival and well-being

Extrinsic Reward

a reward that is tangible, visible to others, and given to employees contingent on the performance of specific tasks or behaviors

Intrinsic Reward

a natural reward associated w/ peforming a task or activity for its own sake

Equity Theory

a theory that states that people will be motivated when they perceive that they are being treated fairly

Inputs

in equity theory, the contributions employees make to the organization

Outcomes

in equity theory, the rewards employees receive for their contributions to the organization

Referents

in equity theory, others w/ whom people compare themselves to determine if they have been treated fairly

Outcome/Input Ratio

in equity theory, an employee's perception of how the rewards received from an organization compare w/ the employee's contributions to that organization

Underreward

a form of inequity in which you are getting fewer outcomes relative to inputs than your referent is getting

Overreward

a form of inequity in which you are getting more outcomes relative to inputs than your referent

Distributive Justice

the perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed or allocated

Procedural Justice

the perceived fairness of the process used to make reward allocation decisions

Expectancy Theory

a theory that states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance will be rewarded, and that they will be offered attractive rewards

Valence

the attractiveness or desireability of a reward or outcome

Expectancy

the perceived relationship btwn effort and performance

Instrumentality

the perceived relationship btwn performance and rewards

Reinforcement Theory

a theory that states that behavior is a function of its consequences, that behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently, and that behaviors followed by negative consequences, or not followed by positive consequences, will occur less frequently

Reinforcement

the process of changing behavior by changing the consequences that follow behavior

Reinforcement Contingencies

cause-and-effect relationships btwn the performance of specific behaviors and specific consequences

Schedule of Reinforcement

rules that specify which behaviors will be reinforced, which consequences will follow those behaviors, and the schedule by which those consequences will be delivered

Positive Reinforcement

reinforcement that strengthens behavior by following behaviors w/ desirable consequences

Negative Reinforcement

reinforcement that strengthens behavior by withholding an unpleasant consequence when employees perform a specific behavior

Punishment

reinforcement that weakens behavior by following behaviors w/ undesirable consequences

Extinction

reinforcement in which a positive consequence is no longer allowed to follow a previously reinforced behavior, thus weakening the behavior

Continuous Reinforcement Schedule

a schedule that requires a consequence to be administered following every instance of a behavior.

Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule

a schedule in which consequences are delivered after a specific or average time has elapsed or after a specified or average number of behaviors has occurred

Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule

an intermittent schedule in which consequences follow a behavior only after a fixed time has elapsed

Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedule

an intermittent schedule in which the time btwn a behavior and the following consequences varies around a specified average

Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Schedule

and intermittent schedule in which consequences are delivered following a specific number of behaviors

Variable Ratio Reinforcement Schedule

and intermittent schedule in which consequences are delivered following a different number of behaviors, sometimes more and sometimes less, that vary around a specified average number of behaviors

Goal

a target, objective, or result that someone tries to accomplish

Goal Setting Theory

a theory that states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they accept specific, challenging goals and receive feedback that indicates their progress toward goal achievement

Goal Specificity

the extent to which goals are detailed, exact, and unambiguous

Goal Difficulty

the extent to which a goal is hard or challenging to accomplish

Goal Acceptance

the extent to which people consciously understand and agree to goals

Performance Feedback

information about the quality or quantity of past performance that indicates whether progress is being made toward the accomplishment of a goal

Communication

the process of transmitting information from one person or place to another

Perception

the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments

Perceptual Filters

the personality, psychology, or experienced-based differences that influence people to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli

Selective Perception

the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent w/ our values, beliefs, and expectations while ignoring or screening out or not accepting inconsistent stimuli or information

Closure

the tendency to fill in gaps of missing information by assuming that what we don't know is consistent w/ what we already know

Attribution Theory

a theory that states that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other people's behavior

Defensive Bias

the tendency for people to perceive themselves a personally and situationally similar to someone who is having difficulty or trouble

Fundamental Attribution Theory

the tendency to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute other people's actions to internal causes

Self Serving Bias

the tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or the environment (external causes)

Encoding

putting a message into a written, verbal, or symbolic form that can recognized and understood by the receiver

Decoding

the process by which the receiver translates the written, verbal, or symbolic form of a message into an understood message

Feedback to Sender

in the communication process, a return message to the sender that indicates the receiver's understanding of the message

Noise

anything that interferes w/ the transmission of the intended message

Jargon

vocabulary particular to a profession or group

Formal Communication Channel

the system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information

Downward Communication

communication that flows from higher to lower levels in an organization

Upward Communication

communication that flows from lower to higher levels in an organization

Horizontal Communication

communication that flows among managers and workers who are at the same organizational level

Informal Communication Channel (Grapevine)

the transmission of messages from employee to employee outside of formal communication channels

Coaching

communicating w/ someone for direct purpose of improving the person's on-the-job performance or behavior

Counseling

communicating w/ someone about non-job-related issues that may be affecting or interfering w/ the person's performance

Nonverbal Communication

any communication that doesn't involve words

Kinesics

movements of the body and face

Paralanguage

the pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking pattern (i.e. use of silences, pauses, or hesitations) of one's voice

Communication Medium

the method used to deliver an oral or written message

Hearing

the act or process of perceiving sounds

Listening

making a conscious effort to hear

Active Listening

assuming half the responsibility for successful communication by actively giving the speaker non-judgemental feedback that shows you've accurately heard what he or she said

Empathetic Listening

understanding the speaker's perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker

Destructive Feedback

feedback that disapproves w/out any intention of being helpful and almost always causes a negative or defensive reaction in the recipient

Constructive Feedback

feedback intended to be helpful, corrective, and/or encouraging

Collaborative Discussion Sites

web or software-based discussion tools that allow employees to ask questions and share knowledge

Organizational Silence

when employees withhold information about organizational problems or issues

Company Hotlines

phone numbers that anyone in the company can call anonymously to leave information for upper management

Survey Feedback

information that is collected by surveys from organizational members and then compiled, disseminated, and used to develop action plans for improvement

Blog

a personal website that provides personal opinions or recommendations, news summaries, and reader comments

Work Team

a small number of people w/ complementary skills who hold themselves mutually accountable for pursuing a common purpose, achieving performance goals, and improving interdependent work processes

Cross Training

training team members to do all or most of the jobs performed by the other team members

Social Loafing

behavior in which team members withhold their efforts and fail to perform their share of the work

Traditional Work Group

a group composed of two or more people who work together to achieve a shared goal

Employee Involvement Team

team that provides advice or makes suggestions to management concerning specific issues

Semi-Autonomous Work Group

a group that has the authority to make decisions and solve problems related to the major tasks of producing a product or service

Self Managing Team

a team that manages and controls all of the major tasks of producing a product or service

Self Designing Team

a team that has characteristics of self-mananging teams but also controls team design, work tasks, and membership

Cross Functional Team

a team composed of employees from different functional areas of the organization

Virtual Team

a team composed of geographically and/or organizationally dispersed coworkers who use telecommunication and information technologies to accomplish an organizational task

Project Team

a team created to complete specific, one-time projects or tasks w/in a limited time

Norms

informally agreed-on standards that regulate team behavior

Cohesiveness

the extent to which team members are attracted to a team and motivated to remain in it

Forming

the first stage of team development,, in which team members meet each other, form initial impressions, and begin to establish team norms

Storming

the second stage of team development, characterized by conflict and disagreement, in which team members disagree over what the team should do and how it should do it

Norming

the third stage of team development, in which team members begin to settle into their roles, group cohesion grows, and positive team norms develop

Performing

the fourth and final stage of team development, in which performance improves b/c the team has matured into an effective, fully functioning team

Structural Accomodation

the ability to change organizational structures, policies, and practices in order to meet stretch goals

Bureacratic Immunity

the ability to make changes w/out first getting approval from managers or other parts of an organization

Individualism Collectivism

the degree to which a person believes that people should be self-sufficient and that loyalty to one's self is more important than loyalty to team or company

Team Level

the average level of ability, experience, personality, or an other factor on a team

Team Diversity

the variances or differences in ability, experience, personality, or any other factor on a team

Interpersonal Skills

skills, such as listening, communicating, questioning, and providing feedback, that enable people to have effective working relationships w/ others

Skill Based Pay

compensation system that pays employees for learning additional skills or knowledge

Gainsharing

a compensation system in which companies share the financial value of performance gains, such as productivity, cost savings, or quality, w/ their workers

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