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Definitions from Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse - The Licensed Chemical Dependency Counselor Written Exam: A Preparation Curriculum

active listening

This clinical skill involves atttending skills and reflective listening. Through utilizing this skill, the counselor will be able to connect with the client and be able to reflect the client's emotions, thoughts, and attitudes. By providing reflection to the addict, the counselor can interject an observing perspective that may be lacking.

empathy

This clinical skill is the ability to perceive another person's experience and communicate that perception back to the person.

concreteness

This clinical skill is a process by which the counselor relates the vague aspects of the client in direct expression of feelings and experiences in specific concrete terms to assist the client to develop more functional coping skills.

paraphrasing

This clinical skill refers to a counselor's verbal response that rephrases the essence of the client's message. It allows the client to hear what he or she just said, either in parroted form or with added clarity. This interactive process can increase trust and can reduce resistance. This skill includes the therapeutic qualities of empathy and warmth.

reflecting

This clinical skill occurs when the counselor restates
content that had generated emotion from the client. It captures and expresses to the client the core of what he or she is feeling. It allows the client to be aware of his or her own expressed emotions and how the counselor understood his or her emotional emssage. The counselor should be careful not to interpret the client's feelings. The counselor remains neutral and non-judgmental by not offering opinions, judgments, or advice during this process.

simplifying

This clinical skill involves the reflection and
restatement of what the clent said. It removes confusion, avoids intellectualizations and convoluted explanations, and can help the client stay focused on concerns, feelings, and problem in the here and now.

summarizing

This clinical skill is the tying together of the main points, themes and issues presented by clients during part or all of a session.

attending

This clinical skill refers to ways in which the clinician demonstrates that she or he is listening to the client through the use of cues.

probing

This clinical skill involves asking open-ended questions to clarify information and to help the client toward a new understanding.

reframing

This clinical skill consists of offering a different perspective on a situation the client is facing.

exploring alternatives

This clinical skill involves working with the client to examine various options

self-disclosure

This clinical skill occurs when a clinician shares something about him/herself for the benefit of the client.

confrontation

This clinical skill involves the use of a statement or question to raise some discrepancy within the client.

immediacy

This clinical skill consists of dealing openly with issues that are present in the clinical relationship.

Irvin D. Yalom

This psychiatrist defined eleven therapeutic factors of group treatment.

Instillation of Hope

By watching other group members get better, clients begin to believe that they can get better also.

Universality

Clients oftern enter therapy feeling that they are all alone. In the group, clients hear others share similar problems, concerns, experiences, and other aspects of their lives, and they begin to feel that they are not alone.

Imparting of Information

Clients can learn more about their illness, symptoms, and behavior from education provided by the group therapist. They might also receive advice and direct guidance from peers about how to deal with their problems.

altruism

Clients often enter treatment with the belief that they have nothing of value to offer others. In groups, clients learn that they are capable of helping others. Their self-esteem is enhanced as a result of helping others, and they become less absorbed in their problems.

the corrective recapitulation of the primary family group

The group therapy situation resembles the early family in a number of ways, thus clients have the tendency to re-experience old family conflicts within the group. The group therapist challenges any maladaptive behavior patterns and roles, because the behavior or role that the client took on in his/her family of origin is often exhibited in the group. If the behavior or role is dysfunctional, it can be corrected rather than allowed to continue in the group.

socializing techniques

Group therapy helps clients develop social skills. Some groups do so by using such procedures as role-playing in which members rehearse certain difficult situations (a job interview, asking for a raise, etc.) while other groups offer constructive criticism. Members of groups learn to listen, respond to others, avoid interrupting while others are talking, be less judgmental, and be more capable of expressing empathy. These skills will be of great value in future social interactions. This is called the development of what?

imitative behavior

Group members often model their behavior after behavioral aspects of other group members as well as that of the therapist.

cohesiveness

This is the sense of "groupness" or closeness, of being accepted, and of being a valued member of a valued group. This satisfies the need to belong.

interpersonal

Given enough time, persons will behave in the group in ways similar to how they behave outside the group. Maladaptive behavior that disrupts the client's adjustment to society is reactivated as he.she interacts with others in the therapy group. The group helps individuals develop adaptive and more gratifying interpersonal relationships. This involves the identification and modification of maladaptive interpersonal relationships. What type of learning is this?

catharsis

The open expression and release of feelings is an important part of group therapy. Group members learn how to express feelings. They also learn that the expression of feelings is not socially wrong.

existential

This frame of reference states that to a certain degree, anxiety and sickness exist because of a person's confrontation with certain "ultimate concerns" of existence, such as death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness. Group therapy deals
with these concerns realistically as group members openly discuss their concerns.

forming, storming, norming, performing, mourning

The Five Stages of group development identified by Tuckman & Jensen, 1977.

Forming

According to Tuckman & Jensen, this phase of group development is the first one in which members may be somewhat uncomfortable with each other. The leader may need to be quite active in this stage until members learn to trust each other.

Storming

According to Tuckman & Jensen, this phase is the power and control stage. Members vie for the pecking order and to take some of the power from the leader, so that it can become their group. The leader may need to be quite active in managing conflict so that the group continues to feel safe. Flexibility is of the utmost importance in this stage.

Norming

According to Tuckman & Jensen, this stage is the intimacy stage. The group is beginning to build cohesion.

Performing

According to Tuckman & Jensen, during this stage there is a cohesive group. Members are more comfortable and able to help each other grow and change.

Mourning

According to Tuckman & Jensen, this is the separation stage. Occurs when members terminate, expecially long-term members. The facilitator gets a new job and the entire group ends. In substance abuse groups, this phase need to be handled well, as many clients relapse around issues of loss. The leader may need to be quite active in this phase, facilitating feelings around separation. This phase is sometimes also referred to as "adjourning".

Initial, transition, working, termination

Yalom's four stages of group development

Orientation

This is the main characteristic of Yalom's first stage of group development called "Initial".

Conflict

This is often present in the second or "Transition" stage of Yalom's four stages of group development.

Cohesion

Characteristic of the third or "Working" stage of Yalom's four stages of group development.

the group leader

Helping build cohesion, managing conflict, dismantling subgroups, dealing with challenging group members, dealing with relapse, supporting members in their recovery efforts, developing group cohesion. These are the tasks of whom?

Crisis

An acute physical and/or emotional event. An event, occurring during treatment that threatens to impact progress. For addicted clients, this often increases the risk of relapse.

Crisis intervention

"Those services which respond to an alcohol and/or other drug abuser's needs during acute emotional and/or physical distress."

Crisis Intervention

The following are the steps for what?
1. Establish a helping relationship.
2. Assure safety.
3. Conduct an assessment.
4. Give support.
5.Assist with action plans.
6. Arrange for follow-up,

assessment, implementation, termination

3 stages of crisis intervention

Sigmund Freud

Originator of psychoanalytic theory

psychoanalytic

This theory of counseling focuses on resolving unconscious conflicts from the past, and views human nature as one in which behavior is determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivation, and biological and instinctive drives, as they evolve through key psycho-sexual stages of development.

psychoanalytic

In this theory of counseling the mind is made of three forces which compete with each other . The forces are the id, the ego and the superego.

the Id

In psychoanalytic theory, the primitive part of the personality. the unconscious part of our personality which operates on the pleasure principle, whose goal is to gain pleasure and avoid pain.

the Ego

In psychoanalytic theory, the conscious part of our personality that operates on the reality principle, the realistic and logical part of the personality. Its goal is to take care of id impulses without harming the superego.

the Superego

In psychoanalytic theory, this is the conscience, a person's moral code, the part of the personality that is aware of right and wrong, the judicial part of the personality, the internalization of the moral standards of parents and society.

denial

a defense mechanism that allows us to pretend that something that is true is not true.

repression

an involuntary removal of threatening thoughts, experiences and feelings from our consciousness. Freud believed that many of our painful experiences of the first 5 years of our life were kept buried in our unconscious minds as a result of this defense mechanism.

projection

a defense mechanism that allows us to attribute to another what you are actually experiencing. This unconsciously allows one to avoid dealing with his/her own experiences.

rationalizing

making excuses for unacceptable behavior. This defense mechanism allows one to avoid the pain of the behavior.

minimizing

the unconscious process of making problems seem less severe than they actually are

compensation

Developing positive traits to unconsciously mask weaknesses and mistakes.

psychoanalytic

The goal of this type of therapy is to bring material from the unconscious mind to the conscious awareness so that one can change (insight); to work through unresolved issues from various psychosexual stages of development.

interpretations

This technique of psychoanalytic therapy has the therapist acting as an expert to explain the meaning of the patient's concerns and the meaning of unconscious material.

free association

In pyschoanalytic therapy, the patient is asked to state aloud the first words that came to his/her find, because the psychoanalyst believed that the material comes directly from the unconscious mind and is useful material for interpretation.

dream interpretation

In psychoanalytic therapy, the analyst listens to dreams and believes that a great deal of unconscious material can be uncovered in dreams.

transference

The patient unconsciously responds to the analyst, as if he/she were a significant other from his/her past, often a parental figure.

countertransference

Negative feelings that are stirred up in the analyst as he/she interacts with the patient - as the patient may remind the analyst of someone from his/her past.

Psychoanalytic

In this view of alcoholism, the alcoholic is thought to have unmet oral needs, originating in the oral stage of life, from birth to about 18 months. It is believed that seeking oral gratification, especially in a bottle, stems from an uncounscious death wish and self-destructive tendencies of the id.

Alfred Adler

Originator of Adlerian Therapy

Adlerian Therapy

This type of therapy is often called "insight oriented therapy". It's goal is to correct faulty assumptions and mistaken goals. and to help a client move beyond feelings of inferiority as he/she works to achieve the following five life tasks: relating to others (friendship), making a contribution (work), achieving intimacy (love and family relationships), getting along with ourselves (self-acceptance), developing our spiritual dimension (meaning connectedness, relationship with the universe.)

Adlerian

This school of therapy explores sibling order and the impact of sibling order on current behavior, believing that feelings of inferiority are the result of inborn and social conditions.

Viktor Frankl and Rollo May

Two originators of existential therapy

existential

This type of therapy focuses on the human condition and includes the capacity for self-awareness, freedom to choose one's fate, anxiety, responsibility, the search for meaning, relationship with self and others, and facing death as a reality.

existential

The goal of this type of therapy is to assist clients to see that they are unrestricted and to become aware of their possibilities, to help them recognize that they are responsible for the events that happen in their lives, and to assist them in being able to identify those things that restrict their ability to choose.

existential

This type of therapy is well-suited for clients dealing with a developmental crisis or a transition in life and for those with concerns about making chioices, dealing with the freedom of making choices and responsibility, dealing with guilt and anxiety, realizing values, or trying to make sense of life. Better suited for those in middle or late stage recovery from addiction, than for those in early recovery because of the nature of addictions and the ill-defined concepts of this type of therapy.

Fritz Perls

Originator of Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt

This type of therapy is an experiential approach geared toward helping clients gain awareness of what they are experienceing and doing in the here and now. This type of therapy is influenced by psychoanalysis, and existential therapy, and sometimes uses "psychodrama" to help clients rewrite scripts or deal with unfinished business. The emphasis is on dealing with unfinished business in the here and now.

Gestalt

This type of therapy uses experiential methods such as the empty chair, letter writing, role playing, psychodrama and re-enactments.

Rogerian

This type of therapy is often called person-centered therapy, focusing on the here and now, and views people as trustworthy, resourceful and capable of resolivng theri own problems. Three characteristics of this type of therapist are: unconditional positive regard, genuiness and accurate empathy.

Unconditional positive regard

One characteristic of a Rogerian therapist is an acceptance of and caring for the client. This is known as what?

Congruence

Another word for the "genuiness" of a therapist or client in Rogerian therapy is what?

Accurate empathy

Three characteristics of a Rogerian therapist are unconditional positive regard, congruence and what else?

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