Chpt 12- Sterilization

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terminology & self quiz questions

disinfectant

chemical agent used on inanimate objectsj (surface) to destroy microorganisms. Ex: alcohol

antiseptics

chemical agent that can be safely used externally on tissues to destroy microorganisms or inhibit their growth. Ex: alcohol

time, temp, pH, concentration

the potency of chemical antimicrobial agents are affected by these

time

30 seconds to one minute

temperature

heat speads up reaction; cold slows down. Ex: warm tissue

pH

environmental facter in the potency of chemical agents

bleach

full strength can be toxic. 5-10 % is just as good as full strength because full strength can be toxic

phenol coefficient

the ratio of a dilution of an agent to the dilution of phenol that will kill all organisms in 10 minutes but not in 5 minutes

filter paper method

methods of evaluation the antimicrobial properties of a chemical agent using filter paper disks placed on an inoculated agar plate

use dilution method

...

ideal disinfectant should be...

fast acting, effective, penetrate ealily, easy to prepare, inexpensive, pleasant odor or none at all

reactions that affect proteins

denaturation, heat, acids, alkalis and other agents

reactions that affect membranes

surfactants, wetting agents

reactions that affect other cell components

alkylating agents

reactions that affect viruses

alkylating agents, detergents, alcohols, dyes

specific chemical antimicrobial agents

soaps/detergents, acids/alkalis, heavy metals, halogens, alcohols, phenols, oxidizing agents, alkylating agents, dyes, other agents

aerosol

cloud of tiny liquid droplets suspended in air

autoclave

an insturment used for sterilization by means of moist heat under pressure

bacteriostatic

referring to an agent that inhibits the growth of bacteria

cavitation

the formation of a cavity inside the cytoplasm of a cell

decimal reduction time (DRT)

the length of time needed to kill 90% of the organisms in a given population at a specified temperature

disinfection

reducing the number of pathogenic organisms on objects or in materials so that they pose no threat of disease

filtration

method of sterilization that uses a mebrane filter to separate bacteria from growth media

lyophilization

freeze drying, a means of preservation of cultures

pasteurization

mild heating to destroy pathogens and other organisms that cause spoilage

phenol coefficient

a numerial expression for the effectiveness of a disinfectant relative to that of phenol

plasmolysis

shrinking of a cell; losing water

quaternary ammonium compound (quat)

a cationic detergent that has four organic groups attached to a nitrogen atom

rad

a unit of radiation energy absorbed per gram of tissue

sonication

disruption of cells by sound waves

sterility

the state in which there are no living organisms in or on a material

sterilization

the killing or removal of ALL microorganisms in any material or on any object (surgical instruments)

surfactant

a substance that reduces surface tension

thermal death point

the temperature that kills all the bacteria in a 24-hour-old broth culture at neutral pH in 10 minutes

thermal death time

the time required to kill all the bacteria in a particular culture at a specified temperature

tincture

an alcoholic solution

ultrahigh temp (UHT) processing

a method of sterililzation milk and daury products by raising the temperature to 87.8 degrees C for 3 seconds

use-dilution test

a method of evaluation the antimicrobial properties of a chemical agent using standard preparation of certain test bacteria

wetting agent

a detergent solution often used with other chmical agents to penetrate fatty substances

germicidal

kills microbes

viricidal

inactivates viruses

sporicidal

kills bacterial endospores and fungal spores

fungicidal

kills yeasts and molds

bacteriocidal

kills bacteria

disinfection

reduction in numbers of pathogenic organisms on objects or in materials so that they do not pose a disease threat

pasteurization process

kills microbial pathogens that might be present in milk

hypochlorite

active antimicrobial ingredient in bleach

gaseous ethylene oxide

method of sterilizing rubber, plastic and bulky materials (mattresses)

15 minutes

minimum time used for sterilization by autoclaving

bacillus stearothermophilus

recommended method for testing that an autoclave has truly sterilized a load uses this

water

microwaves will only heat materials that contain this

passing liquid through a 0.22-µm filter

method that kills bacteria in a liquid without damaging heat-labile proteins in the solution

heat-sensitive materials

the use of autoclaves is limited with these

70%

the percentage of alcohol that is the most effective

soaps & detergents

these aid in the removal of microbes, oils, and dirt but does not sterilize

nitrates

commonly used as food preservatives

alkali

in soap and helps destroy microorganisms

silver nitrate

used to kill gonococci (among the agents containing heavy metals)

mercury-containing compounds

used to disinfect instruments and skin (among the agents containing heavy metals)

chlorine

used to kill pathogens in water (among the agents containing halogens)

iodine

major ingredient in several skin disinfectants (among the agents containing halogens)

phenol derivatives

can be used on skin, instruments, dises and furniture and to destroy discarded cultures

oxidizing agents

useful in disinfecting puncture wounds

alkylating agents

can be used to disinfect or to sterilize a variety of materials, but all are carcinogens

radiation

includes UV light, ionizing radiaion, and sometimes microwaves and strong sunlight

sonication

disruption of cells by sound waves

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