2 main divisions of the ANS
ANS afferent pathways originate in....
ANS efferent pathway originates in
ANS afferent pathway terminates in...
ANS efferent pathways terminates at
Pre ganglionic visceral motor neurons have cell bodies in
Postganglionic neurons have cell body in
PNS (autonomic ganglia)
Fight or flight
feed and breed
3rd division of the ANS
ENS (enteric nervous system)
Preganglionic fibers that synapse near spinal cord are part of which major division of ANS?
Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers originate where (specifically)?
CN III, VII, IX, and X
sacral spinal cord
Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers synapse
(on or near) target organ
All preganglionic ANS fibers release what NT (use abbreviation)?
Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers also release
Sympathetic postganglionic fibers release
3 components of sympathetic division
preganglionic neurons T1-L2
ganglia near spinal cord
specialized neurons in suprarenal gland
Where specifically are the cell bodies of preganglionic sympathetic neurons? where do they exit?
lateral gray horns
2 types sympathetic ganglia
sympathetic chain ganglia
Once sympathetic preganglionic fiber exits as spinal nerve, it branches into the _____________ as it exits the foramen
white ramus communicans
Carries myelinated fibers into the sympathetic chain ganglion
fibers entering the chain ganglion have 3 choices
(1) synapse at same level as where entered
(2) ascend or descend
(3) go to collateral ganglion or suprarenal medulla
Sympathetic chain ganglion targets
organs in thoracic cavity
head, body wall, limbs
Collateral ganglia target
organs in abdominopelvic
Suprarenal medullae (neural part of adrenal gland) target
organs and systems everywhere
What's special about the adrenal pathway?
White ramus contains (myelinated or unmyelinated) fibers?
Preganglionic fibers are (myelinated or unmyelinated) ?
Postganglionic fibers are (myelinated or unmyelinated) fibers?
How to postganglionic fibers that innervate body wall targets (sweat glands, b.v. muscle) re-enter spinal nerve to reach their target?
grey ramus communicans
Postganglionic fibers innervating thoracic organs (heart, lungs) are not innervated by spinal nerves, but instead by
Proceed directly to their targets after leaving sympathic chain ganglion
Cardiac nerve and esophogeal nerve are examples of
What is the fxn of increased activity of sympathetic chain ganglion?
prepare target for crisis
anatomy of the sympathetic chain
Major effects of sympathetic postganglionic fibers in spinal nerves
increase blood flow to muscles and brain
stimulate energy production/use in skel muscle
release lipids from adipose
stim arrector pilli
Major effects of sympathetic postganglionic fibers in sympathetic nerves
increase heart rate
increase cardiac contraction strength
Major effects of sympathetic postganglionic fibers innervating collateral ganglia
constrict peripheral b. v.
reduce blood to organs
release glucose from glycogen stored in liver
release lipids from adipose
relax urinary bladder
reduce urine output
Effects of suprarenal medulla
release epinephrine and NE into blood
Preganglion sympathetic neurons are only found between which segments of spinal cord
Spinal nerves from T1-L2 have both
white rami (preganglionic)
grey rami (postganglionic)
Cervical , inferior lumbar and sacral chain ganglia are innervated by white rami of
T1-L2 (ascending or descending)
How do fibers from white rami arrive at other levels?
ascend or descend chain ganglia
Every spinal nerve has what kind of ramus
If you have a spinal injury to a cervical ventral root, you will have paralysis of voluntary muscle but retain
Abdominopelvic viscera is innervated by preganglionic fibers that originate at
lower thoracic and lumbar spinal cord
Splanchic nerves, which innervate the visceral organs, synapse at one of the following 3 collateral ganglia:
celiac ganglion (most superior)
superior mesenteric ganglion
inferior mesenteric ganglion
4 splanchic nerves:
the sacral splanchic nerves end at the
Stomach, duodenum, liver, gallbladder pancreas and spleen are innervated by which ganglion
The small intestine and parts of the large intestine are innervated by which sympathetic ganglion?
Kidney, bladder, sex organs and part of lg intestine are innervated by which sympathetic ganglion?
Some preganglionic fibers from T5-T8 pass thru the sympathetic chain ganglion and celiac ganglion to synapse in the
What is the effect at the target organ when collateral ganglia of the sympathetic division are activated?
reduce blood flow
release stored energy
The point of sympathetic innevation to the viscera is to turn off functions that are
not necessary for immediate survival of crisis
preganglionic fibers synapse in the suprarenal medulla on
The modified neurons of the suprarenal medulla have (long/short) axons and release _________
E (or) NE
From the suprarenal medulla, E and NE are released to the
The effects of NE or Epinephrine are similar to the effects of the sympathetic innervation except
lasts much longer
What brain structure controls sympathetic stimulation?
General effects of the sympathetic system:
increased activity in cardiovascular and respiratory centers
increased muscle tone
energy stores mobilized
Choinergic synapses use which n.t.?
all preganglionic fibers release
With a few exceptions, sympathetic postganglionic fibers release _______ at effector organ
Where are the exceptions where sympathetic postganglionic fibers release ACh to target
Sympathetic postganglionic fibers do not end at a single neuromuscular jxn, but instead at a "pop -bead" in a network of terminals called
Why does E and NE in the blood last much longer than that released within a skeletal muscle?
because is reabsorbed, broken down and diffused into blood