adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
ideas that relate to or cause the overthrow of a government, or other great change
a political system in which the central government owns farms, factories, and offices
Four Themes of Russian history
1. Invasion and expansion
2. Harsh treatment of common people
3. Slow westernization
4. autocratic government
When one person has absolute power
a tsar in the 1540's
Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible)
Cruel to his own people and conquered people
Peter The Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg
The Russian civil war
The time of tension without actual war
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