Indian nationalist and spiritual leader who developed the practice of nonviolent disobedience that forced Great Britain to grant independence to India (1947). He was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic.
Dominant wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons (summer and winter seasons)
Indian Independence Act
In 1947, the British parliament passed the ______. The act ended British rule in India. It also provided for the partition, or division, of the Indian subcontinent into two seperate and independant nations.
He lived from about 563 to 483 B.C. He established Buddhism, which is one of the world's major religions. He is also known as the Buddha, a title meaning "enlightened one".
the release from pain and suffering achieved after enlightenment; the Buddhist Heaven
Indian version of Hollywood (film industry), centered in Mumbai (formerly Bombay)
a flowering plant used since antiquity to dye skin, hair, fingernails, leather and wool. The name is also used for dye preparations derived from the plant, and for the art of temporary tattooing based on those dyes.
the large desert in the northwestern part of India
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.
East India Company
An English company formed in 1600 to develop trade with the new British colonies in India and southeastern Asia.
Cool, dry air flows from the land to the ocean
large peninsula that juts out from subcontinent which is cut by twisting rivers; surrounded by low mountain ranges called Eastern and Western Ghats; dry region
On April 12th, 1919, Indians gathered in Amritsar to peacefully protest the Rowlatt Act. British troops fired on the crowd killing several hundred. This sparked further protests.
A body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India; characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth.
the belief that the soul, upon death of the body, comes back to earth in another body or form.
1930, Gandhi led a march over 240 miles to the sea to protest the British monopoly on salt in India. It was a peaceful protest.
Literally means "truth force," it was Gandhi's name for his non-violent resistance order to oppose British rule and to hasten political reforms.
A Muslim republic that occupies the heartland of ancient south Asian civilization in the Indus River valley, located south of Afghanistan
Dharasana Salt Works
A protest at a salt factory where Indians walked up to soldiers peacefully and took the hits that were dealt by those same soldiers.
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Koran. Followers are called Muslims.
A region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent; India and Pakistan dispute control of it.
means "children of God" and was Gandhi's designation for the untouchables.
The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone, where convective precipitation occurs due to colliding trade winds
a republic on the island of Ceylon, located southeast of India. (Island)
Priests, at the top of the caste system.
A mountainous landlocked country in central Asia, located above Pakistan
Gandhi was known for his non-violent policies, organizing peaceful protests to resist British rule.
Once known as "untouchables", who were outside the caste system; were considered lower than the lowest caste
A historical region on northwestern India and northern Pakistan; a largely Sikh population.
exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one. (ex. Britain's exploitation of India)
Second level of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; warriors
Founder of Buddhism;
An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming 'enlightened' (the meaning of Buddha) he enunciated the principles of Buddhism.
The Golden Temple, located in the city of Amritsar in the state of Punjab. the holiest shrine in Sikhism. In June 1984, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi ordered an attack on armed Sikh militants holed up in the Golden Temple. Over 500 people were killed in the ensuing firefight, and Sikhs around the world were outraged at the desecration of their holiest site.
Sacred texts in the Hindu religion, they are a set of four collections of hymns and religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests.
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857, also known as the Sepoy Mutiny. the immediate caues was rumor that the British issued Indian troops bullets greased with cow and pig fat. this violated the Sepoy's religious customs.
a republic in the Asian subcontinent in southern Asia
Indian religion that emphasizes complete non-violence and asceticism; founded by Mahavira.
Indian religion which combines elements of Hinduism and Islam; founded by the Guru Nanak (1469-1539) in the Punjab region of northwest India in the 16th century.
The Sustainer god; preserver of worlds; an important Hindu deity in the trinity of gods.
Sikh 5 K's
Kesh - uncut hair.
Kanga - a wooden comb.
Kara - an iron bracelet.
Kachera - a specific style of cotton underwear.
Kirpan - a strapped curved sword.
The Hindu concept of becoming one with Brahman; the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity
Indian religious leader who founded Sikhism in dissent from the caste system of Hinduism
the path of life followed by Buddhists to reach nirvana: right views, intention, speech, actions, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration.
Indian soldiers loyal to Britain
(Hinduism) term of respect for a Brahmin wise man, means "great soul"
In the center of the Indian flag; national symbol of India
A river of South Asia that flows southeast from the Himalayas to the Bay of Bengal; a sacred river of the Hindus
Wind that blows eastward from the southwest, carrying moisture in a great rain cloud. Flooding often results.
Indian leader in Cawnpore during the Sepoy Rebellion, he deceived the besieged British forces by pretending to give them safe passage.
Teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth.
The first Prime Minister of an independent India; close associate of Gandhi; supported westernization of India.
The daughter of Nehru who served as prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977 (1917-1984) , Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister; assassinated by her Sikh body Guards.
the Destroyer god; judge; an important Hindu deity who in the trinity of gods was the Destroyer.
An organization formed in 1906 to protect the interests of India's Muslims, which later proposed that India be divided into separate Muslim and Hindu nations.
Four Noble Truths
(Buddhism) 1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirture. 4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path.
Peasants and traders in Hindu society; the 3rd level of caste system
The Creator god, one of the three Hindu deities.
Basic principles of the cosmos; in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste.
Separates Indo-Gangetic Plain and Southern India.
Bay of Bengal
A Bay that the Ganges River flows into, North of the Indian Ocean, On the eastern side of India, South of Tibet, West of China.
Mohammed Ali Jinnah
(1876-1948) A president of Muslim League, advocated division of India into Pakistan.
Massacre in June of1857 in Cawnpore, India; key episode in the Indian rebellion of 1857, British were besieged by the Indians, tried to evacuate and were massacred. British women and children were massacred by Sepoys.
British general that commanded his troops to open fire at the mass of protestors gathered at Amritsar.
A person's essential self, or individual soul. (Hinduism)
The capital of India; a division of the old city of Delhi
The second lowest of the five castes in the Indian society consisted of peasants and artisans which was most of the Indian population.
A mountain pass of great strategic and commercial value in the Hindu Kush on the border between northern Pakistan and western Afghanistan.
Lowest level of indian society; considered to be beneath the caste system; often given degrading jobs; also known as Dalits.
The rapid growth of human population.
A ritual that required a woman to throw herself on her late husband's funeral pyre or burn herself. This was done gladly and if a woman didn't comply with this she would be disgraced.
The same as Sati; (the act of a Hindu widow willingly cremating herself on the funeral pyre of her dead husband)
The theory that an increasing consumption of goods is economically beneficial.
The procuring of services or products, such as the parts used in manufacturing a motor vehicle, from an outside supplier or manufacturer in order to cut costs.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
Refers to the many underlying forces that molded the Indian independence movement, and strongly continue to influence the politics of India, as well as being the heart of many contrasting ideologies that have caused ethnic and religious conflict in Indian society.
A northwestern arm of the Indian Ocean between India and Arabia.
A group of about 1,200 small coral islands (about 220 inhabited) in the Indian ocean; southwest of India.
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the endless cycle of birth and suffering and death and rebirth; reincarnation