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richard m nixon

He was a committee member of the House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities (to investigate "subversion"). He tried to catch Alger Hiss who was accused of being a communist agent in the 1930's. This brought Nixon to the attention of the American public. In 1956 he was Eisenhower's Vice-President., When he was elected there was high inflation and economic recession from high spending in the war. His greatest success was easing coldwar tensions and with forign countries. He was impeached because of the Watergate Scandal but resigned before he was removed from office., 37th President of the United States (1969-1974) and the only president to resign the office. He initially escalated the Vietnam War, overseeing secret bombing campaigns, but soon withdrew American troops and successfully negotiated a ceasefire with North Vietnam, effectively ending American involvement in the war. Watergate Scandal.

stagflation

a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation), During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth., name given the economic condition throughout most of the 1970s in which prices rose rapidly (inflation) but without economic growth (stagnation). Unemployment rose along with inflation. In large part, these conditions were the economic consequences of rising oil prices.

vietnamization

President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces, President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces, policy of equipping and training of the South Vietnamese to fight for themselves, The goal of the American military effort was to buy time, gradually building up the strength of the South Vietnamese armed forces, and re-equipping it with modern weapons so that they could defend their nation on their own.

nixon doctrine

During the Vietnam War, the Nixon Doctrine was created. It stated that the United States would honor its exisiting defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops., Policy directed at containing the spread of Communism and expanding US influence indirectly through supporting foreign powers; US public did not want to become involved in another conflict after the catastrophic failure of the Vietnam War; illustrated best by US support for Iran during the rule of the Shah in order to make Iran the "Guardian of the Gulf"., it proclaimed that the US would honor its existing defense commitments but in the future countries would have to fight their own war without support of large numbers of american ground troops

silent majority

that group of quiet honest hard-working middle class Americans who do their job, respect their country and support gov.; Nixon wants their votes in 1968 and 1972, label nixon gave to middle-class americans who supported him, obeyed the laws, and wanted "peace with honor" in vietnam, he contrasted this group with students and civil rights activists who disrupted the country with protests in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Phrase used by President Nixon to describe people who suppourted the government's Vietnam policies but did not express their opinons publicly., the mainstream of middle American society that supported the US domestic policy and foregin policy in the late 1960s and early 1970s and opposed the loud student/anti-war types and protestors in general with slogans such as "America - love it or leave it."

spiro agnew

Nixon's vice-president resigned and pleaded "no contest" to charges of tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor of Maryland. He was replaced by Gerald R. Ford., vice president, 1969-1973, a vocal critic of antiwar and civil rights opponents of the Nixon administration; he resigned the vice presidency in 1973 when it was discovered he has accepted bribes as governor of maryland and as vice president, Governor of Maryland who ran as Vice President with Richard Nixon in 1968. He was known for his tough stands against dissidents and black militants. He strongly supported Nixon's desire to stay in Vietnam. He was forced to resign in October 1973 after having been accused of accepting bribes or "kickbacks" from Maryland contractors while governor and Vice President.

my lai massacre

1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war., In 1968 American troops massacred women and children in the Vietnamese village of My Lai; this deepened American people's disgust for the Vietnam War., Under William Cally Jr. in 1968, American troops massacred women and children in the Vietnamese village of My Lai; this deepened American people's disgust for the Vietnam War., Under William Cally Jr. in 1968, American troops massacred women and children in the Vietnamese village of My Lai; this deepened American people's disgust for the Vietnam War.

cambodia bombings

April 30, 1970; secret bombing campaign against Vietminh supply lines in neutral Cambodia; people outraged when the news broke in America > lead to Kent State and Jackson State where students were killed, May 4, 1970

kent state

Ohio college where an anti-war protest got way out of hand, the Nat'l Guard was called in and killed 3 students (innocent & unarmed,wounded 9) in idiscriminate fire of M-1 rifles, an Ohio University where National Guardsmen opened fire on students protesting the Vietnam War on May 4,1970, wounding nine and killing four, Students tried to put a bomb in the ROTC building and broke windows, etc. Governor James Rhodes sent 3000 national guardsmen, shouting matches ocurred, students threw stones, guards shot a volley and killed 4., Kent State gained national attention on May 4, 1970 when an Ohio National Guard unit shot at students in response to war protests on and around campus, killing four and wounding nine. This event, known as the Kent State shootings, propagated intense national response as hundreds of schools closed due to an eight million student strike.

jackson state

The Jackson State killings occurred on Thursday/Friday May 14-15, 1970, at Jackson State College (now Jackson State University) in Jackson, Mississippi. A group of student protesters were confronted by city and state police, may 14, 1970. Jackson state was a black university in Mississippi. Anti-vietnam protesters were fired upon, two were killed. Importaint because it was only 10 days after kent state, and aslo increased anti-war and anti-government sentiments., outbreak of vandalism in downtown area, 500 nat guard troops called to help, so violence brok out, 1970-Mississippi state patrolmen, responding to a campus protest fired into a women's dormitory at this Black college. The patrolmen killed two students and wounded a dozen. This incident led to the explosion of student anger against the violence, war, and the president.

26th amendment

Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18

pentagon papers

A 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War., President tried to prevent the Times from publishing articles about his conduct of the Vietnam War. Congress ruled the President would be in violation of the 1st Amendment, Government documents that showed the public had been lied to about the status of the war in Vietnam, Nixon's obsession with stopping "leaks" began with the release of these classified documents about the Vietnam War, These papers were a government study of U.S. involvement in South East Asia, or more specifically Vietnam commissioned during Johnson's presidency. Their exposure caused a panic in the government and for Nixon to become more paranoid with the upcoming reelection.

daniel ellsberg

a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of government decision-making about the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers., worked for Research and Development corporation and CREEP(committee to reelect the president, military analyst who released the pentagon papers, He was a political activist who was responsible for publishing the Pentagon Papers to the New York Times, letting America know about the government's actions. His actions in publishing the papers greatly eroded American faith in the government and their already little support for the war.

henry kissinger

United States diplomat who served under President Nixon and President Ford (born in 1923), Secretary of State, supported realpolitik, appointed by Nixon as his national Secretary advisor, engaged shuttle diplomacy, The main negotiator of the peace treaty with the North Vietnamese; secretary of state during Nixon's presidency (1970s)., b. 1923. Awarded 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for helping to end Vietnam War and withdrawing American forces. Heavily involved in South American politics as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State. Condoned covert tactics to prevent communism and facism from spreading throughout South America., Nixon's national security adviser. He and his family escaped Hitler's anti-Jewish persecutions. Former Harvard professor. In 1969, he had begun meeting secretly on Nixon's behalf with North Vietnamese officials in Paris to negotiate an end to the war in Vietnam. He was also preparing the president's path to Beijing and Moscow.

detente

relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China, French word meaning an easing of tensions between the world's superpowers during the Cold War, A thaw in Cold War relations between the United States and Soviet Union from 1969-1975, highlighted by the signing of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) treaty and the Helsinki Accords

strategic arms limitation treaty

1972 treaty between the US and the Soviet Union that froze the deployment of intercontinental ballistic missiles and placed limits on antiballistic missiles, A treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union to stabilize the nuclear arms competition between the two countries. SALT I talks began in 1969, and agreements were signed on May 26, 1972., 1972 treaty between the US and the Soviet Union that froze the deployment of intercontinental ballistic missiles and placed limits on anti-ballistic missiles, detente

earl warren

Chief Justice during the 1950's and 1960's who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes., He was Chief Justice and he was marked with dealing mostly with civil rights and racial segregation., controversial Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1953-1969); he led the Court in far-reaching racial, social, and political rulings, including school desegregation and protecting rights of persons accused of crimes., Chief Justice on the Supreme Court for the Brown v Education decision, Chief justice of Supreme Court who broadened constitutional protections for individual rights, chief justice of the Supreme Court nominated by Eisenhower. Very liberal and mistake by Eisenhower.

warren court

the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism, time when Earl Warren led the Supreme Court and controversial decisions were made expanding civil rights, The Warren Court was led by Earl Warren who was nominated by president Eisenhower to be Chief of Justice. The court took an activist stance, helping to shape national policy by taking a forceful stand on a number of key issues of the day., a term that refers to the years when Earl Warren served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; under his leadership, controversial Court decisions greatly extended individual rights and freedoms, Supreme Court when Warren was chief justice, noted for its activism in areas of civil rights and free speech.

griswold v. connecticut

Established that there is an implied right to privacy in the U.S. Constitution, married couple wanted to get contraceptives; struck down a Connecticut law prohibiting the sale of contraceptives; established the right of privacy through the 4th and 9th amendment, found a "right to privacy" in the Consitution that would ban any state law against selling contraceptives, the supreme court overthrew a connecticut law that effectively prohibited the use of contraceptives, holding that the law violated the right to privacy

gideon v. wainwright

a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys., ordered states to provide lawyers for those unable to afford them; Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments; Warren Court's judicial activism, A person who cannot afford an attorney may have one appointed by the government

escobedo v. illinois

defendent must be allowed access to a lawyer before questioning by police, 6th amendment right to counsel requires the questioning of police suspect to have a lawyer, Catch Phrase: 6th Amendment applies during interrogation. (Escobedo is interrogated without lawyer and eventually confesses). S.C. rules interrogation illegal because lawyer wasn't present - Suspect's right to an attorney DURING police interrogation

miranda v. arizona

Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police., 1966 ruling that upon arrest, a suspect has the right to remain silent and the right to consult with a lawyer., Fifth Amendment. Ruled that an admission of guilt without notification of the right of attorney is invalid, Supreme Court case that stated that the police must read your rights to you.

burger court

a conservative jurist appointed by Nixon that nonetheless continued the judicial activism of the Warren Court as seen by Roe v. Wade; this was due to the other members of the court rather than his own liberal beliefs, Warren Burger was appointed by Nixon in 1969 as the 15th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. The Court he presided over was more conservative that the Warren Court, handing over more power to the states throught the Court's decisions, Warren Burger, 15th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court was appointed by Richard Nixon in 1969; more conservative court handing more power to the states, Roe v. Wade

philadelphia plan

required construction-trade unions working on the federal pay roll to establish "goals and timetables" for black employees., This required construction-trade unions to establish "goals and tiemtables" for the hiring of black apprentices. This had far-reaching implications. This was then soon exteneded to all federal contracts, in effect requiring thousands of employers to meet hiring quotas or to establish "set-asides" for minority subcontractors. (P. 945), required construction-trade unions working on the federal pay roll to establish "goals and timetables" for black employees. This plan changed the definition of "affirmative action" to include preferable treatment on groups, not individuals

reverse discrimination

The assertion that affirmative action programs that require preferential treatment for minorities discriminate against those who have no minority status., Giving preference to members of certain groups such that others feel they are the subjects of discrimination, The act of giving preference to members of protected classes to the extent that unprotected individuals believe they are suffering discrimination.

environmental protection agency

(RN), 1970 an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment, An organization that works to develop and enforce regulations that implement environmental laws enacted by Congress., An agency of the federal government created in 1970 and charged with administering all the government's environmental legislation. It also administers policies dealing with toxic wastes. It is the largest federal independent regulatory agency.

occupational safety and health administration

OSHA; a Governmental Agency with the responsibility for regulatory and enforcement of safety and health matters for most United States employees; an individual State OSHA agency may supercede the US Department of Labor OSHA regulations, A government organization whose mission is to assure the safety and health of America's workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach, and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health., regulates the workplace environment; ensures that workplaces are safe and healthful for employees

rachel carson

United States biologist remembered for her opposition to the use of pesticides that were hazardous to wildlife (1907-1964), one of the first people to realize the global dangers of pesticide abuse (DDT). Wrote Silent Spring., Rachel Carson was a marine biologist that wrote and published Silent Spring. Her book addressed her concerns on the environmental hazards of pesticides, bringing attention to the environment.

clean air act

Set emission standards for cars, and limits for release of air pollutants, (RN), 1970 reaction to Rachel Carson in her 1962 in Silent Spring, It describes one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of smog and air pollution in general. The legislation forced the country to enforce clean air standards to improve health and showed that American was moving towards certain environmentalist measures., 1970- law that established national standards for states, strict auto emissions guidelines, and regulations, which set air pollution standardds for private industry

endangered species act

identifies threatened and endangered species in the US, and puts their protection ahead of economic considerations, 1973 protected threshold and endangered species and directed the FWS to prepare recovery plans; Richard Nixon, Enacted in 1973. Recognizes the value of species habitat. It authorizes designation of critical habitat and calls for recovery plans for listed species., Enacted in 1973. Recognizes the value of species habitat. It authorizes designation of critical habitat and calls for recovery plans for listed species., Legislation designed to protect species in danger of extinction

southern strategy

Nixon's plan to persuade conservative southern white voters away from the Democratic party, The Southern Strategy was a term that described the Republicans' move to campaign in the south after it had broken with the Democrats over civil rights. This was the beginning of the Republican domination of the south American sees today in national politics., received southern support from the Democratic party in exchange for promise of no new civil rights legislation, Nixon tried to get Southern support by promising to appoint only conservatives to the federal courts, name a southerner to the supreme court, oppose court ordering busing, and choose a VP candidate acceptable to the South., Nixon's plan to persuade conservative southern white voters away from the Democratic party by being soft on implementing civil rights legislation

election of 1972

Richard Nixon/republican vs. George McGovern/democrat= Nixon, With the McGovern campaign in shambles and the Watergate scandal contained, Nixon won overwhelmingly (61% and 520 electoral votes). McGovern, supported only by minorities and low-income voters, carried only MA and Washington DC., Placed Nixon against Democrat George McGovern, with the former being the embodiment of the radical movements Nixon's "silent majority" of middle-class Americans opposed, resulting in a landslide victory for Nixon, With the McGovern campaign in shambles and the Watergate scandal contained, Nixon won overwhelmingly (61% and 520 electoral votes). McGovern, supported only by minorities and low-income voters, carried only MA and Washington DC.

george mcgovern

George Stanley McGovern, Ph.D (born July 19, 1922) is a former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. McGovern lost the 1972 presidential election in a landslide to incumbent Richard Nixon. McGovern was most noted for his opposition to the Vietnam War. He is currently serving as the United Nations global ambassador on hunger., This anti-war South Dakota Senator lost a landslide election to Nixon in 1972, Democrat running against Nixon on antiwar platform in 1972 election, A Senator from South Dakota who ran for President in 1972 on the Democrat ticket. His promise was to pull the remaining American troops out of Vietnam in ninety days which earned him the support of the Anti-war party, and the working-class supported him, also. He lost however to Nixon.

peace is at hand

henry kissinger announces, The major breakthrough came on 8 October 1972. North Vietnam had been disappointed by the results of the its Nguyen Hue Offensive (known in the West as the Easter Offensive), and feared increased isolation if Nixon's efforts at détente significantly improved U.S relations with the chief communist powers, the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, who were backing North Vietnamese military effort. In a meeting with Kissinger, Tho significantly modified his bargaining line, allowing that the Saigon government could remain in power and that negotiations between the two South Vietnamese parties could develop a final settlement. Within ten days the secret talks drew up a final draft. Kissinger held a press conference in Washington during which he announced that "peace is at hand."

war powers act

Notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops; had to gain congress' approval to stay longer than 90 days; designed to curtail President's power, Limits the ability of the president to commit troops to combat-48 hours to tell Congress when and why the troops were sent, they have 60-90 to bring them home if they disagree, 1973. A resolution of Congress that stated the President can only send troops into action abroad by authorization of Congress or if America is already under attack or serious threat., Law requiring the president to seek periodic approval from Congress for any substantial troop commitment. Passed in 1973 in response to national dissatisfaction over the Vietnam War.

energy crisis

First: many Arab countries created embargo against US for support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War; Second: Iran Revolution caused US to not have enough oil supplies for energy, when Carter entered office inflation soared, due to toe the increases in energy prices by OPEC. In the summer of 1979, instability in the Middle East produced a major fuel shortage in the US, and OPEC announced a major price increase. Facing pressure to act, Carter retreated to Camp David, the presidential retreat in the Maryland Mountains. Ten days later, Carter emerged with a speech including a series of proposals for resolving the energy crisis., Many Arab countries created embargo against US for support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War; and the Iran Revolution caused US to not have enough oil supplies for energy, Syrians and Egyptians attacked Israel in 1973 to reclaim lost land in the six day war. When America supported Israel by airlifting 2 billion dollars in war materials, which resulted in an uneasy cease-fire, the Arab nations put an embargo against the U.S for five months. This embargo signaled the end of the era of cheap and abundant fuel

watergate scandal

A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the break-in and subsequent cover-up forced President Nixon to resign in 1974 to avoid impeachment., A scandal involving an illegal break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in 1972 by members of President Nixon's reelection campaign staff. Before Congress could vote to impeach Nixon for his participation in covering up the break-in, Nixon resigned from the presidency., The falling of Nixon; When people on Nixon's campaign broke into the Watergate Hotel and stole dirt on the Democrates. Although Nixon was not responsible he covered it up and got the blame., Nixon's Impeachment
1) Obstruction of Justice
a. Perjury coaching
b. Using CIA
2) Abuse of Power - abused executive privilege
3) Refusal to obey congress, Nixon got traced to an attempt to break into Democratic HQ's (at Watergate, thus the name) and was caught trying to cover it up. He resigned after the truth came out; Ford, the next president, pardoned him anyway (note, he didn't get re-elected). (They both didn't get re-elected), people lost confidence in the government, creep

committee to reelect the president

an organization formed to run Nixon's 1972 reelection campaign, which was linked to the Watergate scandal., an organization formed to run President Nicon's 1972 reelection campaign, which was linked to the break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters that set off the Watergate scandal, an organization linked to the break in at the Democratic National committee headquarters that set off the Watergate Scandal, an organization formed to run President Nicon's 1972 reelection campaign, which was linked to the break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters that set off the Watergate scandal

25th amendment

Passed in 1951, this amendment permits the vice president to become acting president if both the vice president and the president's cabinet determine that the president is disabled. The amendment also outlines how a recuperated president can reclaim the job., Provided for the succession to the office of president in the event of death or incapacity and for filling vacancies in the office of the vice president

gerald ford

president 1974-77, Nixon's Vice president, only person not voted into the White House, appointed vice president by Nixon: became president after Nixon resigned, the first president to be solely elected by a vote from Congress. He entered the office in August of 1974 when Nixon resigned. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. The Vietnam War ended in 1975, in which Ford evacuated nerely 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam. He closed the war., president, 1974-1977, who served without being elected either president or vice president; appointed vice president under the terms of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment when Spiro Agnew resigned, he assumed the presidency when Nixon resigned., Granted Nixon a full pardon after the Watergate scandle. His plan the end inflation called "WIN" called for Americans to cut back on their use of oil and gas and to take other energy-saving measures.

saturday night massacre

Archibald Cox, the prosecutor of the Watergate scandal case who had issued a subpoena of the tapes, was fired. Both the attorney general and deputy general resigned because they, themselves did not want to fire Cox., Nixon fired Prosecutor Archibald Cox b/c he demanded the Watergate Tapes, A night in which many of Nixon's top ranking officials resigned or were fired because of the Watergate Scandal, Firing of "special prosecutor" Archibald Cox and the subsequent resignations of the attorney general and his deputy on October 20, 1973.

us. v. nixon

The Supreme Court does have the final voice in determining constitutional questions; no person, not even the President of the United States, is completely above law; and the president cannot use executive privilege as an excuse to withhold evidence that is 'demonstrably relevant in a criminal trial, Supreme Court ruling that stated that there is no "absolute unqualified" presidential privilege of immunity., the Supreme Court ruled that the president must relinquish the tapes to Special Prosecutor Jaworski, and later the House Judiciary Committee voted to recommend three articles of impeachment., Ruled that executive privilege implicit in constitution can't be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions (1974)

smoking gun

evidence that Nixon had participated in the Watergate cover-up, which led to certain impeachment, This was something caught on a tape regarding Nixon talking with Haldeman about the coverup, Nixon's tapes which revealed his connection to the Watergate break in, a reference to an object or fact that serves as conclusive evidence of a crime or similar act

helsinki accords

Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries. (p. 839), The Final Act of the Helsinki conference in 1975 in which the thirty-five nations participating agreed that Europe's existing political frontiers could not be changed by force. They also solemnly accepted numerous provisions guaranteeing the human rights and political freedoms of their citizens., (1975) 35 nations agreed that Europe's existing political frontiers could not be changed by force. also solemnly accepted numerous provisions guaranteeing the human rights and political freedoms of their citizens, USSR and USA agree to respect human rights; recognized European borders and promised human rights but the Soviet Union never intended to follow through, detente

fall of saigon

battle where North Vietnam captured capital of South Vietnam and named it Ho Chi Mihn City, Marked the end of the Vietnam War in April, 1975 when North Vietnamese invaded South Vietnam, forcing all Americans left to flee in disarray as the capitol was taken, The surrender of South Vietnamese forces and withdrawal of American troops; end of Vietnam War and a disaster for both sides, 1975, communist forces marched into Saigon, . The forces quickly occupied the capital, renamed it Ho Chi Minh City and began he process of uniting Vietnam under Hanoi.

boat people

after the Vietnam War, refugees who escaped from Vietnam in small boats., Vietnamese who traveled over high seas, fleeing Vietnam Communists, Describes refugees from Vietnam and Cambodia; many settled in the US

title ix

No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, federal legislation that prohibited discrimination in education whether in academics or athletics, 1972; Title IX of Federal Education Amendment to the 1964 Civil Rights Act requires substantially equal spending for young women in college and university sports., Provision of the Educational Amendments of 1972 that bar educational institutions receiving federal funds from discriminating against female students.

equal rights amendment

Supported by the National Organization for Women, this amendment would prevent all gender-based discrimination practices. However, it never passed the ratification process., A constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures., A proposed amendment that would ban any discrimination based on sex. Although defeated, the popularity of the amendment showed how far the feminists had come., initiated by Alice Paul in 1923, states equality of rights under law not denied or changed because of gender; amendment passed but NEVER ratified, phyllis schlafly opposed

roe v. wade

1973, Abortion is legal in the 1st trimester, states can regulate it in the 2nd and states can forbid it in the 3rd

phyllis schlafly

1970s; a new right activist that protested the women's rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s, A conservative female political activist. She stopped the ERA from being passed, seeing that it would hinder women more than it would help them., Author and political activist known for her criticism of feminism and the equal rights amendment., She was a n American conservative columnist She is known for speaking out for conservative causes, such as her opposition to the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), a conservative activist in the Republican Party, mobilized thousands of women at the grassroots level who believed that traditional gender roles were God given and feared that feminism would devalue their own roles as wives and mothers.

bakke v. university of ca

Bakke admitted to medical because school had used a numerical quota to aid minority admission, did not rule hat race could never be used, improving learning environment through diversity in accordance with the right to academic freedom

alcatraz occupation

1969. "Indians of all tribes" maked a "proclamation the the great white father". Called attention to the fact that many treaty rights (such as Ft. Laramie, 1868) had been ignored. Initiated militant activism and generated large amounts of media attention.

national organization for women

Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution., founded by Betty Friedan and others in 1966 it focused on womens rights in the workplace fought against legal and economic discrimination agianst women and lobbied for the Equal Rights Amendment, Inspired by Betty Frieden, a reform organization that battled for equal rights with men by lobbying and testing laws in court. NOW wanted equal employment opportunities, equal pay, ERA, divorce law changes, and legalized abortion., Founded by Betty Friedan and others in 1966 it focused on womens rights in the workplace fought against legal and economic discrimination agianst women and lobbied for the Equal Rights Amendment.

jimmy carter

President who stressed human rights. Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow, The 39th President who created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election., The 39th President who created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Reagan in the next election.

camp david accords

A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel, agreement calling for Israel to return all land in the Sinai in exchange for Egyptian recognition of Israel's sovereignty. Egyptian Sadat agreed and was labeled a traitor, The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt., Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by President Carter., Agreements between Isreali prime minister and Menachem Begin and Egyptian president Anwar Sadat

iranian revolution

(1978-1979) a revolution against the shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic republic with Khomeini as its leader, the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Mullahs (religious leaders) overthrow the US backed Shah and establish a theocracy (religious government) that hated the US, Many Iranians opposed Reza Shah Pahlavi, there was also a hatred of Westernization. There was a revival in Islam, and Ayatollah Khomeini soon emerged as the religious opposition to the Shah. He organized demonstrations and riots, and the Shah eventually left. Khomeini then seized power in Iran.

malaise speech

the speech Carter delivered in response to the energy crisis, it was most notable for Carter's bleak assessment of the national condition and his claim that there was a "crisis of confidence" that had struck "at the very heart and soul of our national will". The speech helped fuel charges that the president was trying to blame his own problems on the American people.

salt ii

Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty., Additional arms limitations signings in 1979 which places limits on long-range missiles, bombers and nuclear warheads., SALT II was a second series of negotiations between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. about nuclear arms reduction. The talks, though never ratified by the Senate due to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, both sides agreed to limit strategic launchers and weapons., Disarment treaty that could have been a major part of Detente, but Cater pulled it out of Senate because of Invasion of Afghanistan

iranian hostage crisis

In 1979, Iranian fundamentalists seized the American embassy in Tehran and held fifty-three American diplomats hostage for over a year. The Iranian hostage crisis weaked the Carter presidency; the hostages were finally released on January 20, 1981, the day Ronald Reagan became president., In 1979, Iranian fundamentalists seized the American embassy in Tehran and held fifty-three American diplomats hostage for over a year., (1979) Iranian fundamentalists seized the Ame embassy in Tehran and held 53 Ame diplomats hostage for over a year. weaked the Carter presidency. hostages were finally released on January 20, 1981 - the day Reagan became pres

ronald reagan

first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns., 1981-1989,"Great Communicator" Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with consevative Democrats or "boll weevils" , at reelection time, jesse jackson first black presdiential candidate, Geraldine Ferraro as VP running mate (first woman), Was an Army Captain, Hollywood actor and Governor of California before becoming president; Berlin Wall separating Germany was torn down; appointed the first woman to the Supreme Court

new right

opposed ERA, focused on social, cultural, and moral problems, opposed gevernment paying for daycare, a response to the liberalism of the 1960's, against affirmative action, abortion, feminism,, Conservative political movements in industrialized democracies that have arisen since the 1960's and stress "traditional values," often with a racist undertone., movement that was a response to countercultural protests and headed by the Moral Majority; conservative cause that denounced abortion, pornography, homosexuality, feminism, and affirmative action

neoconservatives

a group that championed free-market capitalism liberated from government restraints, anti-Soviet positions in foreign policy, questioned liberal welfare programs, and called for the reassertion of traditional values of individualism and the centrality of the family, Reagan drew upon this group of thinkers that championed free-market capitalism liberated from government restraints. Also questioned liberal welfare programs and affirmative-action policies, Political activists and thinkers, mostly former liberals, who turned to a defense of traditional social and moral values and a strongly anticommunist foreign policy in the 1970s and 1980s, Democrats who switched to the Republican Party when the Democrats moved leftward in the 1960's., Former liberals who advocated a strong stand against communism abroad and free market capitalism at home, stressing the positive values of American society in contrast to liberals who emphasized social ills.

supply side economics

An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government., economic policy based on increasing supply. (^ supply means ^ output), economic theory that lower taxes will boost the economy as businesses and individuals invest their money, thereby creating higher tax revenue, Reaganomics policy based on the theory that allowing companies the opportunity to make profits, and encouraging investment, will stimulate the economy and lead to higher standards of living for everyone. Argued that tax cuts can be used stimulate economic growth. Move money into the hands of the people and they will invest, thus creating prosperity.

reaganomics

The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth., (RR) The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side(cut income taxes), and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth, umemployed started going back to work, 1980s; Reagan's economic program which cut taxes and government regulation in order to increase productivity, nd eventully increase tax revenue as cash flowed in the economy

evil empire

Reagan's nickname for the Soviet Union, illustrated an end to detente, Ronald Reagan's description of Soviet Union because of his fierce anti-communist views and the USSR's history of violation of human rights and aggression., Reagan's view of the Communist world (Especially the USSR). (Also refers to the Galactic Empire of Star Wars), Negotiate w Soviets only from a position of overwhelming strength by creating a new and expensive arms race The American economy bore this new financial burden better than the Soviets

star wars

Strategic Defense Initiative pursued by Reagan in the 1980s; involved satellite defense against missiles, Space-based missile system that would be merely defensive A protective web of missile satellites above the US (fantastical), Reagan's program, Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI); was named after the movie; this plan was to protect America against enemy missiles, Defense program to prevent nuclear missiles from reaching the United States through an outer space missile defense system. Greatly increased defense spending, but was not a successful program.

sandinistas

Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990, Anti-American revolutionaries in Nicaragua, Marxist group who led the revolution against the dictator of Nicaragua and then ruled the country from 1979 to 1990, Nicaraguan socialists who successfully carried out a revolution in Nicaragua in the 1980s and were removed from power after they lost the presidential election in 1990 under threat of a U.S. embargo.

contras

A Nicaraguan rebel group that got financial support from the CIA. This group was formed as a response to the overthrowing of Anastazio Somoza Debayle, rebels seeking to overthrow Nicaragua's Sandinista government in the 1980s; financed by the United States, Anti-Communist guerillas in Nicaragua., Anti-Sandinista fighters in the Nicaraguan civil war. The Contras were secretly supplied with American military aid, paid for with money the United States clandestinely made selling arms to Iran. (1037), Anti-Sandinista fighters in the Nicaraguan civil war. The Contras were secretly supplied with American military aid, paid for with money the United States clandestinely made selling arms to Iran. (1037)

election of 1984

Reagan ran against Walter Mondale , who chose Geraldine Ferraro the 1st woman for VP. Reagan won by a landslide with 525 electoral votes, • Regan and Bush were re-elected in 1984
• Record number of votes
• Faced no opposition in the election
• Election campaign revolved around issues of deficit and tariff barriers
• conventional role of Democratic and Republican parties was inverted
• Democrats attacked Republics for budget deficit and called for more tariff protection

geraldine ferraro

In 1984 she was the first woman to appear on a major-party presidential ticket. She was a congresswoman running for Vice President with Walter Modale., The first woman to be taken as a vice-presidential running mate, beforehand she was a congresswoman in New York

mikhail gorbachev

Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. (p. 863), Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931), Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms, Became the leader of the USSR in 1985. He proposed major reforms and adopted policies of greater openness (glasnostand perestroika) and allowed Soveit-bloc states greater independence. In 1991, there wa an unsuccessful attemtped overthrow of his government. The USSR dissolved in 1991 with Gorbachev's resignation.

glasnost

Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union., A Soviet policy permitting open discussion of political and social issues and freer dissemination of news and information, A Soviet policy of openness to the free flow of ideas and information, introduced in 1985 by Mikhail Gorbachev, "openness"(used to describe radical reforms that allowed citizens and news media to say what they wished without fear of government persecution)

perestroika

a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society, Policy of 'openness' that was the centerpiece of Mikhail Gorbachev's efforts to liberalize communism in the Soviet Union. (See also Gorbachev, Mikhail.) (p. 863), A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to revitalize the Soviet economy by opening it up to more free enterprise

iran contra scandal

Although Congress had prohibited aid to the Nicaraguan contras, individuals in Reagan's administration continued to illegally support the rebels. These officials secretly sold weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of American hostages being held in the Middle East. Profits from these sales were then sent to the contras., In order to get out hostages, Reagan sold arms to Iran through Israel and the money was going to the Contra rebels in Guatamala, major scandal of the second Reagan term that involved shipping arms to Iran and diverting the money from the sale of these weapons to the Contra rebels in Nicaragua, major scandal of the second Reagan term that involved shipping arms to Iran and diverting the money from the sale of these weapons to the Contra rebels in Nicaragua, Secret negotiations with Iran; if they released hostages then the US would sell them weapons. When they agreed, Reagan gave the money to rebels in Nicaragua to overthrow the goverment because of their support of communism.

rev jerry falwell

He was an evangelical minister from Lynchburg, Virginia, and in 1979, founded the Moral Majority. Falwell preached with great success against sexual permissiveness, abortion, feminism, and the spread of gay rights.

moral majority

political organization of the United States which had an agenda of evangelical Christian-oriented political lobbying. Formed by Jerry Falwell. Organization made up of conservative Christian political action committees which campaigned on issues its personnel believed were important to maintaining its Christian conception of moral law. This group pressured for legislation that would ban abortion and ban the states' acceptance of homosexuality., "Born-Again" Christians become politically active. The majority of Americans are moral people, and therefore are a political force., Created by Jerry Falwell, he preached with great success against sexual permissiveness, abortio, feminism, and the spread of gay rights, An evangelical Christian group that was created to fight against the liberal ideas and politics that developed in the 60's and after. It is a "right-wing," conservative group.

right to life movement

by the 1980's abortion was the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the country, the right to life movement had supporters among Catholics and other religions, even though their commitment was not necessarily religious, but to traditional notions of family and gender relations. Defenders of abortion rights were not so much defenders of abortion as defenders of every woman's right to choose whether and when to bear a child. During this time the strength of abortion rights and regulations depended on the beliefs of who was in office.

sandra day oconnor

first woman supreme court justice. appointed by Reagan

planned parenthood v. casey

states may regulate abortion as long as there is "no undue burden" on the mother; did not overturn Roe v. Wade but gave states mroe leeway in regulating abortion (parental consent for minors, 24 hour waiting period), reaffirmed Roe v Wade but upheld certain limits on its use, A Pennsylvania law that required spousal notification prior to obtaining an abortion was invalid under the Fourteenth Amendment because it created an undue burden on married women seeking an abortion. Requirements for parental consent, informed consent, and 24-hour waiting period were constitutionally valid regulations., a 1992 case in which the SC loosened its standard for evaluating restrictions on abortion from one of "strict scrutiny" of any restraints to a "fundamental right" to one of "undue burden" that permits considerably more regulation

george h w bush

President from 1989-1993, president 1989-93; economic recession and US involvement in the Persian Gulf war, president during the Gulf War, ability to quickly bring the war to a conclusion while suffering relatively few casualties resulted in the second-highest approval rating of any president, 89%, republican, former director of CIA, oil company founder/owner, foreign policy (panama, gulf war), raised taxes eventhough said he wouldnt, more centrist than his son, NAFTA negotiation, Continued Reagan's conservative policies; brought together United Nations Coalition to fight in Persian Gulf, 41st pres. Republican. encouraged the US and the Soviets to scrap a significant portion of their nuclear weapons in a series of agreements. (Sept 1991) also canceled the around the clock alert status for Ame bombers outfitted w/ atomic bombs. For the first time in four decades, Soviet and American nuclear weapons were no longer standing ready to destroy capitalism, communism, and life itself.

tiananmen square protest

in china 1989. kids protest market reforms without democracy

start ii

Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, each superpower agrees to reduce the number of nuclear weapons they have, signed between Bush and Yeltsin. Committed both powers to reduce their long-range nuclear arsenals by two-thirds within 10 years, signed by President Bush in accord with the Russian president (Boris Yeltsin) committing both powers to reduce their long range nuclear arsenals by 2/3 within ten years, signed by United States President George H. W. Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin on January 3, 1993[1], banned the use of MIRVs on ICBMs and is hence often cited as the De-MIRV-ing Agreement.

norman schwarzkopf

This general was commander of US forces during the Gulf War, American general who led "Operation Desert Storm", US General who conducted a brilliant ground war during Desert Storm (1991) after which Iraq conceded defeat, Commander of U.S. forces in the Gulf War. Led operation "Desert Storm"

operation desert storm

Military operations that started on January 16, 1991, with a bombing campaign, followed by a ground invasion of February 23 and 24, 1991. The ground war lasted 100 hours and resulted in a spectacularly one-sided military victory for the Coalition., Operation Desert Storm was the code name given to the first U.S.-led war against Iraq in the Persian Gulf on January 17, 1991, (GB1) , Deadlines pass and Sadam doesnt move. Op desert shield becomes operation desert storm. Phases of the war = 1-air attack on Sadam 2-troops push him out of Kuwait., • The 43-day air campaign in Persian Gulf War
• Multinational forces led by the US to drive Iraqi army out of Kuwait
• Canada sent ships and fighter planes to patrol the Persian Gulf
• The air campaign incurred minimal casualties and resulted in the liberation of Kuwait and the collapse of Iraqi forces

americans with disabilities act

Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commerical buildings., Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commercial buildings., provides civil-rights protection to individuals who are HIV positive or have hepatitis B, and thus prohibits employers from firing people or transferring them out of foodhandling duties, a law prohibiting discrimination against people with physical or mental disabilities in a workplace, transportation, public accommodations, and telecommunications.

clarence thomas

This man was an African American jurist, and a strict critic of affirmative action. He was nominated by George H. W. Bush to be on the Supreme Court in 1991, and shortly after was accused of sexual harassment by Anita Hill. Hearings were reopened, and he became the second African American to hold a seat in the Supreme Court., second African-American ever on the Supreme Court, conservative nominated by Bush for the Supreme Court; he was a stern critic of affirmative action, Supreme Court Justice, who upheld executive power, interpreting the Constitution narrowly, and championing conservative social issues., African-Ame jurist, and a strict critic of affirmative action. He was nominated by George H. W. Bush to be on the Supreme Court in 1991; became the 2nd African American to hold a seat in the Supreme Court

gender gap

A term that refers to the regular pattern by which women are more likely to support Democratic candidates. Women tend to be significantly less conservative than men and are more likely to support spending on social services and to oppose higher levels of military spending., The difference between the political opinions or political behavior of men and women., a distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between women and men, Difference in voting patterns for men and women, particularly in the greater tendency of the latter to vote for Democratic presidential candidates.

new left historians

"America Sucks" attitude (racism, supremecy, etc.)

george will

famous Conservative philosopher. Believed in moral symmetry "if we let them go unpunished, we will loose the worlds", He's a conservative philosopher who advocates the death penalty on the grounds that it maintains the universe's "moral symmetry", Editor for National Review. Columnist for Newsweek from 1976 and Washington Post since 1979. "A society that thinks the choice between ways of living is just a choice between equally eligible 'lifestyles' turns universities into academic cafeterias offering junk food for the mind.", A conservative philosopher who advocates the death penalty on the grounds that it maintains the universe's "moral symmetry"

election of 1992

Bill Clinton won over George H.W. Bush because of the economy's problems and the solving of foreign policy problems, Bush's greatest strength., The election in which Bill Clinton (D) defeats incumbent George Bush (R), Democrats: Bill Clinton
Republicans: George H. W. Bush
Independents: Ross Perot

bill clinton

42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached, This Democrat served as president from 1993 to 2001, during a period of intense partisanship in the US government. His plan to provide universal health care to all Americans was defeated by Republican Newt Gingrich's "Contract with America" movement and a well-organized opposition from the doctors' lobbying organization (the American Medical Association). His few domestic and international successes were overshadowed by the Monica Lewinsky sex scandal that led to his impeachment and eventual acquittal., 42nd president of the US; described as a New Democrat; balanced federal budget and finished with federal surplus, his unofficial campaign slogan was,"It's the economy, stupid!", extended Palestinian self-rule and arranged timetables for Israeli withdrawal from disputed lands

ross perot

This billionaire was a third-party candidate in the 1992 presidential election won 19 percent of the popular vote. His strong showing that year demonstrated voter disaffection with the two major parties., presidential candidate from 1990s in favor of a more direct democracy, "Reform Party" candidate, This person was a 3rd party candidate in the '92 and '96 election. He stole votes from Bush., independent presidential candidate in 1992 elections; got 20% of the popular vote
Fundamental cause of WWI: nationalism, imperialism, militarism, system of Alliances
Immediate causes of WWI: Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, Third party candidate who ran for president opposing NAFTA in the 1990's.

ralph nader

A leftist American politician who promotes the environment, fair consumerism, and social welfare programs. His book Unsafe at Any Speed brought attention to the lack of safety in American automobiles., In 1971, he founded the non-governmental organization (NGO) Public Citizen as an umbrella organization for these projects. Today, Public Citizen has over 140,000 members and scores of researchers investigating Congressional, health, environmental, economic and other issues. Their work is credited with facilitating the passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act and Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), and prompting the creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)., founder of consumerism, "Unsafe at any speed", Consumer rights activist who in the 60s and 70s attacked corporate Americas unsafe products. Wrote book about the auto industry called Unsafe at Any Speed

don't ask, don't tell

Allowed homosexuals to enter army as long as they kept their private life secret/out of the open, Under Clinton administration. Concerns allowing gays into military but forbids begin openly homosexual., The common term for the policy restricting the United States military from efforts to discover or reveal closeted gay, lesbian, and bisexual service members or applicants, while barring those that are openly gay, lesbian, or bisexual from military service

hillary clinton

the junior United States Senator from New York, and a leading candidate for the Democratic nomination in the 2008 presidential election, first lady of bill clinton, senator for new york, closest a woman has come to presidential candidate, headed up Presdient Clinton's effort to reform US healthcare; runner up to Barack Obama for the 2008 Democratic Presidential Nomination, now Secretary of State, First Lady from 1992-2000; maintained a significant career as First Lady; attacked by conservatives and anti-feminists; took leading role in government affairs; promoted equality of sexes, Prominent child care advocate and health care reformer in Clinton administration; won U.S. senate seat in 2000

brady bill

(WJC) 1993; handgun violence prevention act; legislation that established a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases, imposed a waiting period before people could buy hand guns, also required a criminal record check, Clinton's presidency; dealt with gun control, law passed in 1993 requiring a waiting period on sales of handguns along with a criminal background check on the buyer

oklahoma city bombing

Bombing of Murrah Federal Building. The blast, set off by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, killed 168 people, including 19 children in the building's day-care center., April 19, 1995; 168 people killed in bombing of Alfred P. Murray Federal Building; Americans suspect Middle Eastern ties, but bomber was a white American acting out in response to deaths of members of the Branch Davidian religious sect, April 19, 1995; 168 people killed in bombing of Alfred P. Murray Federal Building; Americans suspect Middle Eastern ties, but bomber was a white American acting out in response to deaths of members of the Branch Davidian religious sect

newt gingrich

Gingrich was the Republican speaker in the House. He pushed for more conservative legislation during Clinton's presidency., after the disagreement in the federal government over the budget between Republican leaders and the president, Public opinion turned quickly and powerfully against the Republican leadership and against much of its agenda. This controversial Republican Speaker of the House, quickly became one of the most unpopular political leaders in the nation, while President Clinton slowly improved his standing in the polls., 1990's very powerful Congressman in Ga. Speaker of the House. Re-elected 10 times. Resigned in late 1990's affair with one of his staffers., Republican Representative from GA, served as speaker from 1995-1997. Got the House Republicans to form a cohesive team, and centralized power in the HOR. was given more power over the committees. pushed for more conservative legislation during Clinton's presidency.

contract with america

(WJC)Gingrich, President can delete specific items passed by the Congress, proposed constitutional amendment to limit the term of office was ignore, imposed federal mandates on states without providing the money, In the 1994 congressional elections, Congressman Newt Gingrich had Republican candidates sign a document in which they pledged their support for such things as a balanced budget amendment, term limits for members of Congress, and a middle-class tax cut., Plan signed by many Republican candidates who promised to work for a balanced budget amendment and other reforms

welfare reform bill

A bill reluctantly signed by Clinton that gave the responsibility of caring for dependent children to states (1996)

nafta

North American Free Trade Agreement, A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries., north American free trade agreement- Agreement signed on JAN. 1 1994, that allows the opening of borders between the United States Mexico and Canada., Created to allow the free movement of goods between Canada, Mexico, and the U.S. by lessening and eliminating tariffs

alan greenspan

the most powerful figure in the American economy, chairman of the Federal Board, warned in 1999 of the "irrational exuberance" with which Americans were pursuing profits in the stock market., most famous Federal Reverse chair, expanded the economy to fight unemployment, (9/11) didn't lower intrest rates enough, so he had to lower again and again (self-fulfilling, people thought he'd keep lowering so they didn't do anything differently), the most powerful figure in the American economy, chairman of the Federal Board,, former chairman of the fed; appointed by Regan and re-appointed by George H.W. Bush and Clinton, conservative economist

bosnian crisis

The Bosnian crisis occurred when Austria, who had made a previous agreement with Russia to support opening up the Straits for warships if Russia supported Austria, Austria annexed bosnia and herzegovina angering the serbs and russians; William II forced Russia to accept annexes or face war with germany, Annexation of Bosnia in 1908 leads to tension between Serbia (who was seeking an outlet to the Adriatic) and Austria; Russia supports Serbia; Turkey, Austria and Germany force Serbs to accept annexation.

madeleine albright

first female United States Secretary of State, first woman to become United States Secretary of State. She was nominated by President Bill Clinton on December 5, 1996 and was unanimously confirmed by the United States Senate 99-0. She was sworn in on January 23, 1997., First female secretary of state, serving in office under the Clinton administration.

whitewater

(WJC) an Ame political controversy that began with the real estate dealings of Bill and Hillary Clinton and their associates, [Jim and Susan McDougal] in the Whitewater Development Corporation, a failed business venture. David Hale, the source of criminal allegations against Clinton, claimed in November 1993 that Bill, while govnr of AK, pressured him to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, Kenneth Starr major player, Real estate venture gone wrong from which the Clintons both received special treatment, one of his critics attempts to discredit the president morally, an Ame political controversy that began with the real estate dealings of Bill and Hillary Clinton and their associates, [Jim and Susan McDougal] in the Whitewater Development Corporation, a failed business venture. David Hale, the source of criminal allegations against Clinton, claimed in November 1993 that Bill, while govnr of AK, pressured him to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal

clinton impeachment

Result of a political sex scandal emerging from a sexual relationship between United States President Bill Clinton and a 22-year-old White House intern, Monica Lewinsky., Result of a political sex scandal emerging from a sexual relationship between United States President Bill Clinton and a 22-year-old White House intern, Monica Lewinsky., Repubs were in control and were trying to get D pres out of office
He lies under oath = was impeached in House
Sent to the senate - D use their minority power to not let bill pass
Clinton is acquitted

george w bush

43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001, republican, neo-conservative, foreign policy dominated by war on terror, No child left behind, tax cuts, high deficits, major economic problems, proposed privatizing social security, opposed stem cell research/pro-life/carbon reductions/ international law, but wanted more domestic drilling to alleviate oil dependence, major contributions to HIV/AIDs, Continued Reagan's conservative policies; brought together United Nations Coalition to fight in Persian Gulf, called Iran the "axis of Evil' along with North Korea and Iraq, In response to the September 11, 2001 attacks on America, Bush announced a "war on terror", which came to be a central issue of his presidency. In early October 2001, he ordered an invasion of Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban as part of an attempt to defeat al-Qaeda. In March 2003, Bush then ordered an invasion of Iraq, asserting that Iraq had violated UN Resolution 1441 regarding weapons of mass destruction. Claims made by Bush in support of the war have been highly contested, and the war is currently rather unpopular in the U.S.

election of 2000

Reported that gore had won the crucial state of florida but polls were still open. In the morning FL went to Bush. Netweorks said it was so close that a recount was neccesary. Bush's chief attorney Mark Rosco., George W Bush v Al Gore. Florida had re-counts and Supreme Court determined winner., Reported that gore had won the crucial state of florida but polls were still open. In the morning FL went to Bush. Netweorks said it was so close that a recount was neccesary. Bush's chief attorney Mark Rosco, supreme court put themselves on the line to choose bush, elections standardized

hanging chads

Were what made the confusion in the 2000 election in Florida, in the 2000 presidential elections, these remnants on the voting ballots caused great controversy

september 11, 2001

terrorist attacks on the united states that killed thousands of people at the twin towers and the pentagon, Islamic suicide atttacks on Both World Trade center buildings in New York and on the Pentagon in Virginia, Two planes were hijacked and were sent flying into the World Trade Center in NYC another plane crashed in PA and another plane crashed into the side of the Pentagon

war on terrorism

U.S. launched an attack on Afghanistan that drove the Taliban from power, A war based on destuction of terrorism and governments that support it. Started after 9/11, initiated by Bush after 9/11, attacks to week out terrorist operatives throughout the world, using diplomacy, military means, improved homeland security, stricter banking laws, and other means, initiated by george w. bush after the september 11, 2001, attacks to weed out terrorist operatives throughout the world, using diplomacy, military means, improved homeland security, stricter banking laws, and other means

usa patriot act

law passed due to 9/11 attacks; sought to prevent further terrorist attacks by allowing greater government access to electronic communications and other information; criticized by some as violating civil liberties, Laws enacted after 9/11 that grants the federal government broad powers to fight terroritst activities., (2001) law passed by Congress making it easier for the FBI and other law enforcement agencies to secret collect information about suspected terrorists, The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56). Enacted on October 26, 2001, the historic U.S. law brought about momentous changes in the money laundering control field, including more than 50 amendments to the Bank Secrecy Act. Title III of the Act, the International Money Laundering Abatement and Anti-Terrorist Financing Act of 2001, contains most, but not all, of its money laundering-related provisions.

department of homeland security

US federal agency created in 2002 to coordinate national efforts against terrorism, Secretary Janet A. Napolitano, A proposal by President Bush in 2002 which would consolidate 22 federal agencies and nearly 170,000 federal employees, secure homeland from terrorist attacks, protect and respond to threats and hazards, secure boreders, welcome lawful immigrants and visitors, promote free flow of commerce, agencies=transportation and security administration, us customs and borders, us citizenship and immigration services, us immigrants custom enforcements

weapons of mass destruction

nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons that can kill tens of thousands of people all at once, Chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons. These weapons are capable of destroying enormous numbers of people and vast areas, hence the name. Saddam Hussein has used these on the Iranian army during the Iran-Iraq War, and on the Kurds in 1988., chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons; these are capable of destroying enormous numbers of people and vast areas, hence the name; Saddam Hussein used weapons of mass destruction on the Iranian army during the Iran-Iraq War and on the Kurds in 1988

iraq war

War in which US successfully took down a dominating dictator and is currently helping them "get back on their feet"., A war fought to end Sadaam Hussein's influence in Iraq and disarm them of WMD's, US, coalition attack iraq bc of WMD, overthrow saddam, cant deal with insurgency, part of Bush's "war on terror"; Iraq thought to be holding weapons of mass destruction, between the armed forces of Iraq and Iran lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the longest conventional war of the twentieth century. The war began when Iraq invaded Iran, launching a simultaneous invasion by air and land into Iranian territory following a long history of border disputes, and fears of Shia insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shia majority influenced by the Iranian Revolution. Iraq was also aiming to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state.

no child left behind

Holds states, schools, and school districts more accountable for their standardized tests scores. The wanted outcome was better tests scores all around and overall a smarter and better population of young people that would positively contribute to a growing America., In 2001, Bush, modeled national education after a program in Florida, this included accountability through testing, which caused teachers to concentrate on teaching for the test.

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