multiplying the normal forecast by a seasonal factor
Adjust for seasonality by______
An________ is the average, absolute difference between the forecast and demand.
In a weighted moving average, weights are assigned to the most ________ data.
Linear trend line
________ is a linear regression model relating demand to time.
Large + E
________ indicates a forecast is biased low.
In adjusted exponential smoothing, the closer beta is to ________, the stronger a trend is reflected.
________ methods are the most common type of forecasting method for the long term strategic planning process.
linear trend line
A ________ will not adjust to a change in trend as will exponential smoothing.
Simulation provides a laboratory for experimentation on a_____
________ are the values that express the state of the system being modeled at the beginning of the Monte Carlo simulation.
In assigning random numbers to probabilistic events in a simulation,every random number is associated with a______
How many 2-digit random numbers are in the range 00-20?
size of the potential calling population
difference between infinite and finite source queuing models is the:
certainty, uncertainty, and risk.
The basic decision environment categories are:
Determining the worst payoff for each alternative and choosing the alternative with the best worst is called:
the maximax and maximin criteria
The Hurwicz criterion is a compromise between:
the same decision
The expected value and expected opportunity loss criteria result in:
minimax regret criterion
The ________ minimizes the maximum regret.
A ________ decision is one that has better payoff than another decision under each state of nature.
Utiles are units of ________ measures of utility.
best decision and all other decision payoffs
Regret is the difference between the payoff from the:
worst payoff by one minus the coefficient of optimism.
The Hurwicz criterion multiplies the:
What is not an approach for decision making under uncertainty?
minimizes the maximum regret
The minimax regret criterion:
The term opportunity loss is most closely related to:
pairwise comparison matrix
A ________ summarizes the pairwise comparisons for a criterion.
relative importance of a set of features based on a criterion.
A required step in the analytic hierarchy process is to determine the:
less than or equal to 0.1
Values with an acceptable consistency ratio are values:
In synthesization, dividing each value in each column of the pairwise comparison matrix by the corresponding column sum, we obtain the ________ matrix.
In the ________ process, the decision maker determines how well each alternative scores on a criterion using pairwise comparisons.
the difference between actual and target values
Deviation variables that occur in the objective function and the constraints of a goal programming model indicate :
A ________ measures the degree of inconsistency in pairwise comparisons.
all of the above
The overall priorities for decision alternatives: A) indicate what choice is preferred, but do not force that choice to be made, B) are the sum of the products of the criterion priority times plus the priority of the decision alternative with respect to that criterion, C) sum to 1,D) all of the above
select the node with the shortest direct route from the origin
The first step in the shortest route solution method is to:
minimum total branch lengths connecting all nodes in the network
The minimal spanning tree problem determines the:
make sure there is no path with available flow capacity left.
The last step in the shortest route solution method is to:
A branch where flow is permissible in either direction is a/an ______arc
In formulating the transportation problem as a linear programming problem, the number of units shipped from origin a to destination b is represented by:
The ________ problem deals with the distribution of goods from several sources to several destinations
D) all of the above
Which of the following are assumptions or requirements of the transportation problem?A) There must be multiple sources, B) Shipping costs per unit do not vary with the quantity shipped, C) Goods are the same, regardless of source, D) all of the above
B) agent 4 can be assigned to three tasks
The assignment problem constraint x41 + x42 + x43 + x44 ≤ 3 means: A) a mixture of agents 1, 2, 3, and 4 will be assigned to tasks 1, 2, or 3. B) agent 4 can be assigned to three tasks. C) agent 3 can be assigned to four tasks. D) there is no feasible solution.
D) none of the above
In an assignment problem which one is true: A) each agent is assigned to its own best task. B) one agent can do parts of several tasks. C) one task can be done by several agents. D) none of the above
B) Goods are the same, regardless of source
Which of the following are assumptions or requirements of the transportation problem? A) Minimum quantities must be shipped. B) Goods are the same, regardless of source. C) A and B D) none of the above
An assignment problem is a special form of transportation problem where all supply and demand values equal:
minimum cost problems
Transportation, assignment, and transshipment problems have wide applications and belong to a class of linear programming problems called:
B) Shipping costs per unit do not vary with the quantity shipped
Which of the following are assumptions or requirements of the transportation problem? A) There can only be one source., B) Shipping costs per unit do not vary with the quantity shipped., C) Minimum quantities must be shipped., D) all of the above
there must be at least two columns and there must be at least two rows.
The transportation model assumes that:
one task can be done by only one agent.
What happens in an assignment problem:
eliminates obviously infeasible solutions and evaluates the remaining solutions to determine which one is optimal.
The implicit enumeration method:
Linear programming relaxation contains the objective function and the original constraints of the integer programming problem but drops all ________.
an enumeration method
The branch and bound method of solving linear integer programming problems is ________.
exactly 2, 4
Assume that we are using 0-1 integer programming model to solve a capital budgeting problem and xj = 1 if project j is selected and xj = 0 otherwise. The constraint (x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 ≤ 2) means that ________ out of the 4 projects must be selected.
If a maximization linear programming problem consists of all less than or equal to constraints with all positive coefficients and the objective function consists of all positive objective function coefficients, then rounding down the linear programming optimal solution values of the decision variables will ________ result in a feasible solution to the integer linear programming problem.
If we are solving a 0-1 integer programming problem, the constraint x1 = x2 is a ________ constraint.
If a maximization linear programming problem consists of all less than or equal to constraints with all positive coefficients and the objective function consists of all positive objective function coefficients, then rounding down the linear programming optimal solution values of the decision variables will ________ result in an optimal solution to the integer linear programming problem.
1A + 2B < 5
Which of the following could not be a linear programming problem constraint? A) 1A + 3B ≥ 6, B) 1A + 2B < 5, C) 1A + 2B + 3C + 4D ≤ 5, D) 1A + 2B = 3, E) 1A + 2B ≤ 3
For a maximization problem, the shadow price measures the ________ in the value of the optimal solution per unit increase for a given ________.
parameter, optimal solution
Sensitivity analysis is the analysis of the effect of ________ changes on the ________.
The ________ property of linear programming models indicates that the rate of change or slope of the objective function or a constraint is constant
The optimal solution is the ________ feasible solution.
The ________ property of linear programming models indicates that the values of all the model parameters are known and are assumed to be constant.
is the amount by which the left side of a ≤ constraint is smaller than the right side.
A slack variable:
Max 3x + 3y + (1/3)z
In a linear programming problem, a valid objective function can be represented as A) Max Z = 5x2 + 2y2, B) Min (x1 + x2) /x3, C) Max 3x + 3y + (1/3)z, D) Max Z = 5xy
Except satisfying the non-negativity constraint, a solution that satisfies all the other constraints of a linear programming problem is called:
solve simultaneous equations at each corner point to find the solution values at each point.
The last step in solving a graphical linear programming model is:
Which special case does not require reformulation of the problem in order to obtain a solution?
1A + 2B
Which of the following could not be a linear programming problem constraint? A) 1A + 2B = 3, B) 1A + 2B, C) 1A + 2B ≥ 3, D) 1A + 2B ≤ 3
The optimal solution of a minimization problem is at the extreme point __________ the origin.
The ________ property of linear programming models indicates that the decision variables cannot be restricted to integer values and can take on any fractional value.
The ________ property of linear programming models indicates that the rate of change or slope of the objective function or a constraint is constant.
An ________ solution violates at least one of the model constraints
________ are mathematical symbols representing levels of activity
Multiple optimal solutions can occur when the objective function line is ________ to a constraint line