# Reinforcement Schedules

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### Schedules of Reinforcement

Rules that state the relationship between a certain behaviour and its consequences, defined in terms of duration or time or number of responses required to present a reinforcer

### Continuous Reinforcement

Every occurrence of an operant response is reinforced

### Continuous Reinforcement Factors (3)

Leads to rapid acquisition of a target behaviour, as well as rapid increase in target behaviour, but is not common in real life situations

### Intermittent Reinforcement

The target behaviour is only reinforced on some occassions

### Four types of Intermittent Schedules

Fixed Ratio, Fixed Interval, Variable Ratio, Variable Interval

### Fixed Ratio

A reinforcer is delivered after a fixed number of responses

### Variable Ratio

A reinforcer is delivered after a number of responses, varying around an average

### Fixed Interval

A reinforcer is delivered after a fixed length of time

### Variable Interval

A reinforcer is delivered after a length of time, varying around an average

### Three Schedule Effects

Rate of responding, Pattern of responding, Resistance to extinction

### Rate of responding

Controlled by how frequently the target behaviour is reinforced, so rich schedules produce higher rater and ratio schedules produce higher rates

### Pattern of responding - fixed ratio

Steady, rapid rate of responding with post-reinforcement pause

### Pattern of responding - fixed interval

Acceleration of responding following the post-reinforcement pause, until the delivery of a reinforcer (overall a low rate of response)

### Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect (Who, what)

Humphrey, partial or intermittent reinforcement schedules are more resistant to extinction than continuous reinforcement schedules

### What schedule types are more resistant to extinction? (3)

Ratio, Variable, Lean

### Discrimination Hypothesis

In order for behaviour to change, a subject must be able to discriminate the changes in reinforcement contingency (which is harder when intermittent)

### Generalisation Decrement Hypothesis

There is decreased responding in a generalisation test when the test stimulus becomes less similar to the training stimulus

### What causes post-reinforcement pause? (3 Hypotheses)

Satiation, Fatigue, Remaining-Responses

### Satiation Hypothesis

Reinforcers decrease in strength over time; incorrect as longer pauses are found with longer fixed ratio schedules

### Fatigue Hypothesis

The subject is tired after responding and so pauses to recover after reinforcement; incorrect as subjects often work harder and without pauses

### Remaining-Responses Hypothesis

After receiving a reinforcer, the subject realises that they are the furthest away from receiving their next reinforcer; correct with support from multiple schedules research

### Multiple Schedules

A subject is presented with two or more different reinforcement schedules one at a time, signaled by different discriminative stimuli

Modal, Molecular

### Modal Theory

There is a linear relationship between response rate and reinforcer rate for VR schedules, but there is an asymptote for VI schedules, so higher response rates aren't worth the effort

### Molecular Theory

Longer inter-response times are more frequently reinforced on VI schedules than VR schedules, which are reinforced by shorter inter-response times

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