Classical Period

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Dates of the Classical Period

1750-1825

During the classical period, people became fascinated with the ancient civilizations of?

Ancient Greece and Rome

THE CLASSICAL PERIOD - A Review
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In reaction to the Baroque Pd - the composers and artists of the Classical Period returned to the ideals of ___, ___, ___ and ___ of "Classical" Greece and Rome.

1. moderation
2. order
3. simplicity
4. balance

Musical texture in Renaissance and Baroque Periods was mostly ___ - several melodies woven together

POLYPHONIC

One of the most momentous changes in music history was the development of __ which remains the prevailing texture of most Western music even today - even jazz, rock and pop.

homophonic

What is homophonic texture?

Melody with harmonic/chordal accompaniment

Unlike the Baroque Period, Classical Period composers wanted performers to follow the text of their compositions faithfully, adding no ornamentation or improvisation (unless in the provided opportunity of the cadenza) - therefore, notation became more __ and __.

specific and descriptive

__ music grew in importance.

instrumental

The __with its ability to play contrasting dynamics replaced the harpsichord as a solo instrument because the performer could bring out the melodic line and keep the accompaniment soft.

piano

Woodwinds became a self-contained section. This led to the development of the ___ - a musical work in which one solo instrument is contrasted with an orchestra.

concerto

One of the most important musical forms used -
___ Form
(ABA Form)

concerto

In SONATA FORM, the beginning and ending sections the same - contrasting middle sections. This is an example of the Classical Period's
__ and __.

BALANCE
AND
CONTRAST

Another compositional form that developed during this time was the ___ - a large musical work in 4 movements.

symphony

The four movements of the symphony are:

1. FAST
2. SLOW
3. SOME TYPE OF DANCE
4. FAST

The Concerto, the Symphony, the Sonata and the growth of orchestras occurred at this time in history because
_____.

improvements in the design of instruments allowed them to play a more soloistic role and caused a growth in their popularity.

Like the Baroque era, almost all musicians worked under the __ - they worked for the royal court or some other aristocrat or for the church - providing whatever music their employers needed. However, composers of this period also began to publish music on their own.

Patronage system

Before the rise of the middle class, music was performed in the "homes" of royalty and aristocracy or in the church. Now there were more people in society who were interested in music and had the money to pay for it. This caused the
RISE OF THE __ __.

public concert

This also led to the RISE OF THE ___ - musicians who stayed together and performed as a team every time there was a concert.

orchestra

There was a growth of international music publication and ____.

touring

The invention of the __ __ and the rise of the middle class led to the development of a market for music at home

printing press

The new middle class could pay for lessons and for published music. Music was becoming a widespread source of entertainment - it wasn't for just the rich anymore. Composers had to appeal to the broader public. They wanted music __ and __.

less complex
and
easier to play

Women were considered the property of their fathers until they were "handed over" to a husband. Women did write, paint and compose; but rarely recognized outside their social circles. The Impact of women on music was mostly as:

1. TEACHERS
2. SINGERS
3. AUTHORS OF INSTRUCTION MANUALS
4. PATRONS AND ORGANIZERS OF MUSICAL EVENTS

This was the era of the __ - a gathering at the home of a fashionable woman that was partly a social event, partly a seminar.

SALON

Art, music, books and ideas were discussed. These gatherings gave women some influence in a society run by men by helping with the spread of philosophical changes as well as popularizing artists by discussing:

1. MUSIC
2. ART
3. BOOKS
4. PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS

The Austrian composer Franz Josef Haydn was known as the Father of the ___ and the ___.

Symphony and the string quartet

Although employed by the Court of __ he made two concert tours to __ which made him an international celebrity.

ESTERHAZY
LONDON

Another Austrian __, a child prodigy,- was unlike any other composer in music history, by in every medium of composition of his day and excelling in all - symphonies, chamber and piano music; virtuoso concertos, operas & other choral music

Mozart

He began his compositional career writing for __ as his patron, but rebelled and struck out on his own.

the church

He didn't want to be told what to write so he composed works for __ __ he put on himself. He also composed works on __. It was a hand-to-mouth existence and he died at age 35, penniless and in debt.

PUBLIC CONCERTS
COMMISSION

German composer __ studied with Haydn and performed for Mozart as a young man. He loved and was often inspired by nature and is considered the __ between Classical and Romantic period.

LUDWIG VON BEETHOVEN
BRIDGE

Beethoven was supported by several rich patrons, but __.

They didn't tell him what to compose

Not only did Beethoven compose whatever music he desired, he performed in concerts to raise money and earned money by ___.

Publishing his own music

Beethoven began losing his hearing when only 30 years old. Totally deaf by __, he continued to compose which is sad considering he never heard some of his greatest compositions performed.

7 years before his death

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