ESCI 111 Quiz 15

20 terms by thathaw 

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________ denotes the exposed, crescent-shaped rupture surface at the head of a slump.

Scarp

Consider a weathered rock or soil particle lying on a slope. How will the gravitational force pulling the particle downward along the land surface vary with the inclination of the slope?

It will decrease as the slope angle is lessened.

How do the strength and cohesion of clay-rich regolith or soil change with the addition of water?

Water lowers the strength and cohesion.

________ involves movement on a zone of compressed air and would most likely be triggered by an earthquake.

A rock avalanche

Which one of the following operates primarily in areas of permafrost?

solifluction

Consider a steep highway cut made by removing slightly weathered to fresh, fractured, granite bedrock. Which of the following situations is most stable against rockslides?

One set of widely spaced, sub-horizontal fractures.

Which of the following was a major factor leading to the Gros Ventre, WY slide?

Soils and shallow bedrock were very wet and locally saturated.

What caused the lahars (mudflows) in 1985 on the Nevado del Ruiz volcano?

Pyroclastic flows melt snow and ice near the summit.

Why was the Alaskan pipeline built above ground and insulated?

To protect the pipeline against damage due to thawing ground and to keep the crude oil hot and fluid.

Which statement best describes slumping, a mass wasting process?

A block or blocks of unconsolidated regolith slide downhill along a curved slip surface.

Which mass wasting process has the slowest rate of movement?

creep

Which of the following is the factor affecting mass wasting?

all of the above

The most rapid type of mass movement is a ________.

rock avalanche

As an erosional process, how is mass wasting unique from wind, water, and ice?

Mass wasting does not require a transporting medium.

How do freezing, thawing, wetting, and drying contribute to soil creep?

The soil expands and contracts, lifting particles and dropping them a slight distance downslope.

All of the following are possible indicators that creep is occurring except for ________.

an extremely thick soil profile

During wet weather or times when snow is melting, sometimes the downhill toe of a slump ________.

becomes an earthflow

How do freezing, thawing, wetting, and drying contribute to soil creep?

The soil expands and contracts, lifting particles and dropping them a slight distance downslope.

All of the following are possible indicators that creep is occurring except for ________.

an extremely thick soil profile

A geologist wants to locate a horizontal coal bed on a soil-covered slope where soil creep is active. A distinctive sandstone bed underlies the coal bed. On the basis of weathered sandstone fragments in the soil, where is the coal bed?

just above the highest piece of sandstone seen in the soil.

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