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Dao (Definition)

-"way" or "path" = "Way of all things"
- Mysterious source and ordering principle of universe.

Date of Emergence of Doaism

- Emerged in the third C. BCE under the Chou Dynasty before first unification of China.
- Time of major political and social chaos. States were at war with eachother.

Where is Daoism practied

- Taiwan
- Hong Kong
- Chinese Communities of Malaysia, Thailand, and Syngapore
- US (San Francisco)

Qi (Definition)

- The One
- Primordial Energer
- The breath of Life
Each human being has this qi and Daoist practice is based on how humans nurture qi.

Yin

- Dark, heavy, obscure, passive, earth, death, and famine

Yang

- Light, warm, airy, active, life, heaven, and masculine.

Purpose of Daoist practice

- One learns how to control qi.
- The goal is to ally oneself to the Yang pattern of light-male-heaven.
- Also to cultivate Yin qualities of femaleness. Female-yin energies nurture and vitalize male-yang energies.

T'ai-chi ch'uan

- Was developed in 18th century CE as a training for martial arts.
- Helps channel Qi to body organs and revitalize them.
- Practice by Chinese at dawn and dusk for their health.

Shang Ti (Lord on High, Ruler of the Universe)

Emerged durng the Shang Dynasty (1600-1122 BCE)
- Ruler of the Universe
- Not a Creator god
- Supreme ancestor of the Chinese+ancestor of ruling Shang family
Guarantor of moral order
King = chief priest and diviner

Mandate of Heaven (T'ien Ming)

Chou Dynasty (1122-221 BCE)
- more impersonal designation for concept of heavenly power
- Heaven
- diety
- supreme reality
- divine order of universe
- divine order of universe
- Self-existing moral law of virtue
- A virtuous family may be obligated by heaven to rule
- Special relationship based on merit, NOT birth.

Emperor = Son of Heaven

- Title held until 1906
- Heaven, Earth, and the emperor linked together

Taiji Diagram

- The Taiji diagram is the same as the yin-yang symbol

De or Te

- It is the inherent power or virtue
- Respect father, elders, superiors, emperor, ancestors. In return elders are to treat juniors with courtesy and concern.

Laozi

- Legendary sage also known as "Lao-tzu" or "Lao-tse"
- Wrote the scripture known as Daodejing (The Classic of the Way and its Power

Daodejing

Scripture meaning "The Classic of the Way and its Power"
- Written by Laozi during the Waring States Period (350-275 BCE)
- Main concern focused on how individuals can experience Dao and let their lives flow in harmony with it.
- It was originally concieved as a political manual.

Wu-Wei

"non-action", "inaction", non-purposiveness"
- Refraining from overly aggressive action
-Refraining form taking intentional action contrary to natural flow of things
- Action without ego-assertion
In politices it means "non-interference and in education it means to be passively open and receptive

Zhuang Zi

- Less Political than Daodejing
- Focused mainly on the individual path to liberation
- Total detachment from society and civilization
- Judgements are relative
- Life is a delusion?

The Way of the Celestial Masters

It was founded by Zhang Daoling (Healer) during the 1st and 2nd Century AD in Western China
- Group that still exists in Taiwan today.
- It is a secret society that has a strict hierarchy
- It's main goal is to attain longevity through faith healing, meditative trance and alchemy
- Accepted minorities and women in the ranks of Parish leadership.

Zhang Daoling

- Was the founder of the Way of the Celestial Masters

Yellow Turbans (The Way of Great Peace)

- It was founded by Zhang Jue
- They conquere the whole of the Yellow River in eastern China
- Yin and Yang were no longer in balance in heaven and on earth
- A new "Yellow Heaven" mandate was to replace the Han dynasty mandate.

Celestial Worthies (Three Purities)

- Hold courts in celestial paradises
-Govern a complex hierarchy of lesser gods
- Among them is Laozi
- Celestial Worthy of Primordial Beginning, Celestial Worthy of Numinous Tresure, and Celestial Worthy of the Way and its Power (Deified Laozi)

The Three Officials

Heaven, Earth, and Water
- Ancient deities
- Keeps records of human deeds on earth
- Control each person's life span and fate after death.
-Stern
-When a Daoist falls sick, priests would then submit petitions to the Three Officials.

Shen

- The god of the stove

Where did Confucianism dominate the philosophy of education?

- It dominated the philosophy of education in East Asia until the 20th Century

How do Doaists and Confucians differ from one another?

DAOISM
- Emphasized nature
- Harmony of individuals with Dao
Confucians
- Emphasized better relationships
- Social Harmony

K'ung fu-tzu (Confucius)

- Challenged corrupt, autocratic leaders
- Argued for meritocracy
-Advocated education for all
- At age 67, he returned to Lu and spent the rest of his life teaching

Analects (Lun Yu)

- Sayings and conversations of Confucius
- Compiled after his death

The Five Classics

Book of Poetry (Shijing)
Book of Changes (Yijing)
Book of History (Shujing)
Book of Rites (Liji)
Spring and Summer Annals (Qunqiu)

Book of Mencius

Written in 3rd Century BC
- Humans are by nature good
- Natural goodness must be cultivated
- Emphasized family obligations
- Rulers must provide for all citizens
-Just land distribution
- Right to revolt against an unjust ruler

Five Basic Relationships

Parent and Child
Husband and and Wife
Elder and Younger Brother
Friend and Friend
Ruler and Subject

Xun Zi

-Believed that humans are basically evil
-Goodness requires:
- Strict education
- Moral training
- Participation in the rituals of society

Ren

- Means Humanenss and is also written as Jen

Shu

- Means reprocity
- Do not do to other what you would not have them do to you

Li (Propriety, Good form)

- Rites and rituals of a society
- Courtesy
- Right and proper order
- Religious rituals
- Ancestor veneration
- Worship of deities spirits

Xiao or Hsiao

- Means filial piety

Cheng-Ming

- Means rectification of names

Temples of Culture (Wen Miao)

- Established in each province
- Included images of Confucius
- Sacrifices to Confucius

Meaning of the word Shinto

- Way of the Spirits

Kami

- Powers in natural

6th Centery AD

- Buddhism was introduced into Japan.
- Shinto was developed as a seperate religion.

19th Century AD

-Western imperialists chanllenged Shinto.
-Emperor of Meji reinterpreted Shinto.
-Shinto was "purified" out of many Buddhist influences.

20th Century AD

-Emperor Hirohito denied his divinity.

Kojiki

-Chronicles of Ancient Events
-Izanag (He who invites) and Izanami (She who invites) created Japanese islands.
-After the production of the islands, the couple produced many kami.

Izanagi and Izanami

The two couple created the Japanese islands along with many Kami that go with it.
-The birth of the fire god killed Izanami and she went to the land of the dead.
Izanagi sougher her in the corrupt land of the dead and polluted himself.

Amerterasu

- The Sun goddess

Jimmu Tenno

-The first huma emperor of Japan.
-Amaterasu's great-grandson
-Ancestor of all imperial houses
-Human with kami nature
-Able to communicate with Amaterasu.

What is the meaning of Shinto Worship?

- Cosmic Harmony

Bushido Code

-The warrior code of honor
-Based on Daoist and Zen Buddhist concepts
-Governed the Samurai
-Absolute loyalty of a warrior to his lord.
-Demanded ritual suicide (hara-kiri) for failiure.

Motoori Norinaga

-Leading scholar
-Shinto surpassed all and encompassed all religions
-Buddha and Confucius are Kami
-Japan was superior to other countries
-All should give allegiance to the Mikado (Japanese emperor)

Meji Reforms

-Ended the Samurai era
-Ended the state patronage of Buddhism
-Restored power to the emperor
-Created constitution and legislature
-Opened Japan to foreign trade
-Made Shinto a state religion

State Shinto

Emphasized ancestor veneration
-Identified with the emperor, the government, and patriotism.
-Included most Shinto Shrines and Rituals.
Placed all shrines under the Bureau of Shines
-All Japanese were required to register at a shrine.

Mt. Fiji

- Pilgramage place

Tenrikyo

- Means "Teaching of Heavenly Reason)
-was a spiritual group formed by a peasant woman named Miki

Kamidana

- High shelf on which rests a miniature shrine with a mirror inside.

Where is the Grand Imperial Shrine of Amaterasu located?

-It is located at Ise.

Analects

-The book of sayings of Confucius

Dao

-The mysterious origin of he universe, which is present and visible in everything.

Daodejing

-The classic scripture of Daoism

Five Classics

-The classic literature of the time preceding Confucius, including poetry, history, and divination

Four Books

-The major confucian books, which included sayings of Confucius and Mencius

Junzi

"Noble Person"
-The refined human ideal of Confucianism

Laozi

- The legendary founder of Daoism

Legalists

-The strictest of the Chinese philosophical schools, which advocated strong laws and punishments.

Mohists

-A Chinese school of philosophy that taught universal love.

Qi

- Life force

Ren

- Empathy, consideration for others, humanenes

Shu

-Reprocity

Wen

Cultural refinement

Wu Wei

"No action" "No strain"
-Doing only what comes spontaneously and naturally; effortlessness

Xiao (Hsiao)

-Family devotion, filial peity

Yang

-The active aspect of reality that expresses itself in speech, light, and heat

I Ching

- An ancient Confucian book of divination, one of the Five Classics that is still in use today.

Yin

-The respective aspect of the universe that expresses itself in silence, darkness, coolness, and rest

Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)

Author of the Zuangzi, a book of whimsical stories that express themes of early Daoist thoughts

Amaterasu

"Shining in Heaven"
- Goddess of the sun

Bushido

"Warrior Knight Way"
- Military devotion to a ruler, demanding loyalty, duty, and self-sacrifice.
-An ideal promoted by State Shinto

Gagaku

- The stately ceremonial music of Shinto

Ise

-Located in southeastern Honshu of a major shrine to Amaterasu

Izanagi

"Male who invites"
- Primordial male parent god

Izanami

"Female who invites"
- Primordial female parent god

Jinja

- A Shinto shrine

Kami

- A spirit, god or goddess of Shinto

Kamidana

- A shelf or home altar for the veneration of the cami

Kamikaze

"Spirit Wind"
- Suicide fighter pilots of World War II

Kojiki

- The earliest chronicle of Japanese history

Misogi

A ritual of purification that involves stanting under a waterfall

Nihongi

- The second chronicle of Japanese history

Noh

- Dramas performed in mask and costume, associated with Shinto

Omoto

A new religion, which stresses art and beauty

Samurai

- Feudal Soldiers

Shimenawa

- Twisted rope that marks a sacred spot

Tenrikyo

- a new religion devoted to human betterment

Torii

- A gatelike structure that marks a Shinto sacred place.

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