-"way" or "path" = "Way of all things"
- Mysterious source and ordering principle of universe.
Date of Emergence of Doaism
- Emerged in the third C. BCE under the Chou Dynasty before first unification of China.
- Time of major political and social chaos. States were at war with eachother.
Where is Daoism practied
- Hong Kong
- Chinese Communities of Malaysia, Thailand, and Syngapore
- US (San Francisco)
- The One
- Primordial Energer
- The breath of Life
Each human being has this qi and Daoist practice is based on how humans nurture qi.
Purpose of Daoist practice
- One learns how to control qi.
- The goal is to ally oneself to the Yang pattern of light-male-heaven.
- Also to cultivate Yin qualities of femaleness. Female-yin energies nurture and vitalize male-yang energies.
- Was developed in 18th century CE as a training for martial arts.
- Helps channel Qi to body organs and revitalize them.
- Practice by Chinese at dawn and dusk for their health.
Shang Ti (Lord on High, Ruler of the Universe)
Emerged durng the Shang Dynasty (1600-1122 BCE)
- Ruler of the Universe
- Not a Creator god
- Supreme ancestor of the Chinese+ancestor of ruling Shang family
Guarantor of moral order
King = chief priest and diviner
Mandate of Heaven (T'ien Ming)
Chou Dynasty (1122-221 BCE)
- more impersonal designation for concept of heavenly power
- supreme reality
- divine order of universe
- divine order of universe
- Self-existing moral law of virtue
- A virtuous family may be obligated by heaven to rule
- Special relationship based on merit, NOT birth.
De or Te
- It is the inherent power or virtue
- Respect father, elders, superiors, emperor, ancestors. In return elders are to treat juniors with courtesy and concern.
- Legendary sage also known as "Lao-tzu" or "Lao-tse"
- Wrote the scripture known as Daodejing (The Classic of the Way and its Power
Scripture meaning "The Classic of the Way and its Power"
- Written by Laozi during the Waring States Period (350-275 BCE)
- Main concern focused on how individuals can experience Dao and let their lives flow in harmony with it.
- It was originally concieved as a political manual.
"non-action", "inaction", non-purposiveness"
- Refraining from overly aggressive action
-Refraining form taking intentional action contrary to natural flow of things
- Action without ego-assertion
In politices it means "non-interference and in education it means to be passively open and receptive
- Less Political than Daodejing
- Focused mainly on the individual path to liberation
- Total detachment from society and civilization
- Judgements are relative
- Life is a delusion?
The Way of the Celestial Masters
It was founded by Zhang Daoling (Healer) during the 1st and 2nd Century AD in Western China
- Group that still exists in Taiwan today.
- It is a secret society that has a strict hierarchy
- It's main goal is to attain longevity through faith healing, meditative trance and alchemy
- Accepted minorities and women in the ranks of Parish leadership.
Yellow Turbans (The Way of Great Peace)
- It was founded by Zhang Jue
- They conquere the whole of the Yellow River in eastern China
- Yin and Yang were no longer in balance in heaven and on earth
- A new "Yellow Heaven" mandate was to replace the Han dynasty mandate.
Celestial Worthies (Three Purities)
- Hold courts in celestial paradises
-Govern a complex hierarchy of lesser gods
- Among them is Laozi
- Celestial Worthy of Primordial Beginning, Celestial Worthy of Numinous Tresure, and Celestial Worthy of the Way and its Power (Deified Laozi)
The Three Officials
Heaven, Earth, and Water
- Ancient deities
- Keeps records of human deeds on earth
- Control each person's life span and fate after death.
-When a Daoist falls sick, priests would then submit petitions to the Three Officials.
Where did Confucianism dominate the philosophy of education?
- It dominated the philosophy of education in East Asia until the 20th Century
How do Doaists and Confucians differ from one another?
- Emphasized nature
- Harmony of individuals with Dao
- Emphasized better relationships
- Social Harmony
K'ung fu-tzu (Confucius)
- Challenged corrupt, autocratic leaders
- Argued for meritocracy
-Advocated education for all
- At age 67, he returned to Lu and spent the rest of his life teaching
The Five Classics
Book of Poetry (Shijing)
Book of Changes (Yijing)
Book of History (Shujing)
Book of Rites (Liji)
Spring and Summer Annals (Qunqiu)
Book of Mencius
Written in 3rd Century BC
- Humans are by nature good
- Natural goodness must be cultivated
- Emphasized family obligations
- Rulers must provide for all citizens
-Just land distribution
- Right to revolt against an unjust ruler
Five Basic Relationships
Parent and Child
Husband and and Wife
Elder and Younger Brother
Friend and Friend
Ruler and Subject
-Believed that humans are basically evil
- Strict education
- Moral training
- Participation in the rituals of society
Li (Propriety, Good form)
- Rites and rituals of a society
- Right and proper order
- Religious rituals
- Ancestor veneration
- Worship of deities spirits
Temples of Culture (Wen Miao)
- Established in each province
- Included images of Confucius
- Sacrifices to Confucius
19th Century AD
-Western imperialists chanllenged Shinto.
-Emperor of Meji reinterpreted Shinto.
-Shinto was "purified" out of many Buddhist influences.
-Chronicles of Ancient Events
-Izanag (He who invites) and Izanami (She who invites) created Japanese islands.
-After the production of the islands, the couple produced many kami.
Izanagi and Izanami
The two couple created the Japanese islands along with many Kami that go with it.
-The birth of the fire god killed Izanami and she went to the land of the dead.
Izanagi sougher her in the corrupt land of the dead and polluted himself.
-The first huma emperor of Japan.
-Ancestor of all imperial houses
-Human with kami nature
-Able to communicate with Amaterasu.
-The warrior code of honor
-Based on Daoist and Zen Buddhist concepts
-Governed the Samurai
-Absolute loyalty of a warrior to his lord.
-Demanded ritual suicide (hara-kiri) for failiure.
-Shinto surpassed all and encompassed all religions
-Buddha and Confucius are Kami
-Japan was superior to other countries
-All should give allegiance to the Mikado (Japanese emperor)
-Ended the Samurai era
-Ended the state patronage of Buddhism
-Restored power to the emperor
-Created constitution and legislature
-Opened Japan to foreign trade
-Made Shinto a state religion
Emphasized ancestor veneration
-Identified with the emperor, the government, and patriotism.
-Included most Shinto Shrines and Rituals.
Placed all shrines under the Bureau of Shines
-All Japanese were required to register at a shrine.
- Means "Teaching of Heavenly Reason)
-was a spiritual group formed by a peasant woman named Miki
-The classic literature of the time preceding Confucius, including poetry, history, and divination
-The strictest of the Chinese philosophical schools, which advocated strong laws and punishments.
- An ancient Confucian book of divination, one of the Five Classics that is still in use today.
-The respective aspect of the universe that expresses itself in silence, darkness, coolness, and rest
Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)
Author of the Zuangzi, a book of whimsical stories that express themes of early Daoist thoughts
"Warrior Knight Way"
- Military devotion to a ruler, demanding loyalty, duty, and self-sacrifice.
-An ideal promoted by State Shinto