Religion Test #3
|Dao (Definition)|| -"way" or "path" = "Way of all things"|
- Mysterious source and ordering principle of universe.
|Date of Emergence of Doaism|| - Emerged in the third C. BCE under the Chou Dynasty before first unification of China.|
- Time of major political and social chaos. States were at war with eachother.
|Where is Daoism practied|| - Taiwan|
- Hong Kong
- Chinese Communities of Malaysia, Thailand, and Syngapore
- US (San Francisco)
|Qi (Definition)|| - The One|
- Primordial Energer
- The breath of Life
Each human being has this qi and Daoist practice is based on how humans nurture qi.
|Yin||- Dark, heavy, obscure, passive, earth, death, and famine|
|Yang||- Light, warm, airy, active, life, heaven, and masculine.|
|Purpose of Daoist practice|| - One learns how to control qi.|
- The goal is to ally oneself to the Yang pattern of light-male-heaven.
- Also to cultivate Yin qualities of femaleness. Female-yin energies nurture and vitalize male-yang energies.
|T'ai-chi ch'uan|| - Was developed in 18th century CE as a training for martial arts.|
- Helps channel Qi to body organs and revitalize them.
- Practice by Chinese at dawn and dusk for their health.
|Shang Ti (Lord on High, Ruler of the Universe)|| Emerged durng the Shang Dynasty (1600-1122 BCE)|
- Ruler of the Universe
- Not a Creator god
- Supreme ancestor of the Chinese+ancestor of ruling Shang family
Guarantor of moral order
King = chief priest and diviner
|Mandate of Heaven (T'ien Ming)||Chou Dynasty (1122-221 BCE)|
- more impersonal designation for concept of heavenly power
- supreme reality
- divine order of universe
- divine order of universe
- Self-existing moral law of virtue
- A virtuous family may be obligated by heaven to rule
- Special relationship based on merit, NOT birth.
|Emperor = Son of Heaven|| - Title held until 1906|
- Heaven, Earth, and the emperor linked together
|Taiji Diagram||- The Taiji diagram is the same as the yin-yang symbol|
|De or Te|| - It is the inherent power or virtue|
- Respect father, elders, superiors, emperor, ancestors. In return elders are to treat juniors with courtesy and concern.
|Laozi|| - Legendary sage also known as "Lao-tzu" or "Lao-tse"|
- Wrote the scripture known as Daodejing (The Classic of the Way and its Power
|Daodejing|| Scripture meaning "The Classic of the Way and its Power"|
- Written by Laozi during the Waring States Period (350-275 BCE)
- Main concern focused on how individuals can experience Dao and let their lives flow in harmony with it.
- It was originally concieved as a political manual.
|Wu-Wei||"non-action", "inaction", non-purposiveness"|
- Refraining from overly aggressive action
-Refraining form taking intentional action contrary to natural flow of things
- Action without ego-assertion
In politices it means "non-interference and in education it means to be passively open and receptive
|Zhuang Zi|| - Less Political than Daodejing|
- Focused mainly on the individual path to liberation
- Total detachment from society and civilization
- Judgements are relative
- Life is a delusion?
|The Way of the Celestial Masters||It was founded by Zhang Daoling (Healer) during the 1st and 2nd Century AD in Western China|
- Group that still exists in Taiwan today.
- It is a secret society that has a strict hierarchy
- It's main goal is to attain longevity through faith healing, meditative trance and alchemy
- Accepted minorities and women in the ranks of Parish leadership.
|Zhang Daoling||- Was the founder of the Way of the Celestial Masters|
|Yellow Turbans (The Way of Great Peace)|| - It was founded by Zhang Jue|
- They conquere the whole of the Yellow River in eastern China
- Yin and Yang were no longer in balance in heaven and on earth
- A new "Yellow Heaven" mandate was to replace the Han dynasty mandate.
|Celestial Worthies (Three Purities)|| - Hold courts in celestial paradises|
-Govern a complex hierarchy of lesser gods
- Among them is Laozi
- Celestial Worthy of Primordial Beginning, Celestial Worthy of Numinous Tresure, and Celestial Worthy of the Way and its Power (Deified Laozi)
|The Three Officials|| Heaven, Earth, and Water|
- Ancient deities
- Keeps records of human deeds on earth
- Control each person's life span and fate after death.
-When a Daoist falls sick, priests would then submit petitions to the Three Officials.
|Shen||- The god of the stove|
|Where did Confucianism dominate the philosophy of education?||- It dominated the philosophy of education in East Asia until the 20th Century|
|How do Doaists and Confucians differ from one another?|| DAOISM|
- Emphasized nature
- Harmony of individuals with Dao
- Emphasized better relationships
- Social Harmony
|K'ung fu-tzu (Confucius)|| - Challenged corrupt, autocratic leaders|
- Argued for meritocracy
-Advocated education for all
- At age 67, he returned to Lu and spent the rest of his life teaching
|Analects (Lun Yu)|| - Sayings and conversations of Confucius|
- Compiled after his death
|The Five Classics|| Book of Poetry (Shijing)|
Book of Changes (Yijing)
Book of History (Shujing)
Book of Rites (Liji)
Spring and Summer Annals (Qunqiu)
|Book of Mencius|| Written in 3rd Century BC|
- Humans are by nature good
- Natural goodness must be cultivated
- Emphasized family obligations
- Rulers must provide for all citizens
-Just land distribution
- Right to revolt against an unjust ruler
|Five Basic Relationships|| Parent and Child|
Husband and and Wife
Elder and Younger Brother
Friend and Friend
Ruler and Subject
|Xun Zi|| -Believed that humans are basically evil|
- Strict education
- Moral training
- Participation in the rituals of society
|Ren||- Means Humanenss and is also written as Jen|
|Shu|| - Means reprocity|
- Do not do to other what you would not have them do to you
|Li (Propriety, Good form)|| - Rites and rituals of a society|
- Right and proper order
- Religious rituals
- Ancestor veneration
- Worship of deities spirits
|Xiao or Hsiao||- Means filial piety|
|Cheng-Ming||- Means rectification of names|
|Temples of Culture (Wen Miao)|| - Established in each province|
- Included images of Confucius
- Sacrifices to Confucius
|Meaning of the word Shinto||- Way of the Spirits|
|Kami||- Powers in natural|
|6th Centery AD|| - Buddhism was introduced into Japan.|
- Shinto was developed as a seperate religion.
|19th Century AD|| -Western imperialists chanllenged Shinto.|
-Emperor of Meji reinterpreted Shinto.
-Shinto was "purified" out of many Buddhist influences.
|20th Century AD||-Emperor Hirohito denied his divinity.|
|Kojiki|| -Chronicles of Ancient Events|
-Izanag (He who invites) and Izanami (She who invites) created Japanese islands.
-After the production of the islands, the couple produced many kami.
|Izanagi and Izanami|| The two couple created the Japanese islands along with many Kami that go with it.|
-The birth of the fire god killed Izanami and she went to the land of the dead.
Izanagi sougher her in the corrupt land of the dead and polluted himself.
|Amerterasu||- The Sun goddess|
|Jimmu Tenno|| -The first huma emperor of Japan.|
-Ancestor of all imperial houses
-Human with kami nature
-Able to communicate with Amaterasu.
|What is the meaning of Shinto Worship?||- Cosmic Harmony|
|Bushido Code|| -The warrior code of honor|
-Based on Daoist and Zen Buddhist concepts
-Governed the Samurai
-Absolute loyalty of a warrior to his lord.
-Demanded ritual suicide (hara-kiri) for failiure.
|Motoori Norinaga|| -Leading scholar|
-Shinto surpassed all and encompassed all religions
-Buddha and Confucius are Kami
-Japan was superior to other countries
-All should give allegiance to the Mikado (Japanese emperor)
|Meji Reforms|| -Ended the Samurai era|
-Ended the state patronage of Buddhism
-Restored power to the emperor
-Created constitution and legislature
-Opened Japan to foreign trade
-Made Shinto a state religion
|State Shinto|| Emphasized ancestor veneration|
-Identified with the emperor, the government, and patriotism.
-Included most Shinto Shrines and Rituals.
Placed all shrines under the Bureau of Shines
-All Japanese were required to register at a shrine.
|Mt. Fiji||- Pilgramage place|
|Tenrikyo|| - Means "Teaching of Heavenly Reason)|
-was a spiritual group formed by a peasant woman named Miki
|Kamidana||- High shelf on which rests a miniature shrine with a mirror inside.|
|Where is the Grand Imperial Shrine of Amaterasu located?||-It is located at Ise.|
|Analects||-The book of sayings of Confucius|
|Dao||-The mysterious origin of he universe, which is present and visible in everything.|
|Daodejing||-The classic scripture of Daoism|
|Five Classics||-The classic literature of the time preceding Confucius, including poetry, history, and divination|
|Four Books||-The major confucian books, which included sayings of Confucius and Mencius|
|Junzi|| "Noble Person"|
-The refined human ideal of Confucianism
|Laozi||- The legendary founder of Daoism|
|Legalists||-The strictest of the Chinese philosophical schools, which advocated strong laws and punishments.|
|Mohists||-A Chinese school of philosophy that taught universal love.|
|Qi||- Life force|
|Ren||- Empathy, consideration for others, humanenes|
|Wu Wei|| "No action" "No strain"|
-Doing only what comes spontaneously and naturally; effortlessness
|Xiao (Hsiao)||-Family devotion, filial peity|
|Yang||-The active aspect of reality that expresses itself in speech, light, and heat|
|I Ching||- An ancient Confucian book of divination, one of the Five Classics that is still in use today.|
|Yin||-The respective aspect of the universe that expresses itself in silence, darkness, coolness, and rest|
|Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)||Author of the Zuangzi, a book of whimsical stories that express themes of early Daoist thoughts|
|Amaterasu|| "Shining in Heaven"|
- Goddess of the sun
|Bushido|| "Warrior Knight Way"|
- Military devotion to a ruler, demanding loyalty, duty, and self-sacrifice.
-An ideal promoted by State Shinto
|Gagaku||- The stately ceremonial music of Shinto|
|Ise||-Located in southeastern Honshu of a major shrine to Amaterasu|
|Izanagi|| "Male who invites"|
- Primordial male parent god
|Izanami|| "Female who invites"|
- Primordial female parent god
|Jinja||- A Shinto shrine|
|Kami||- A spirit, god or goddess of Shinto|
|Kamidana||- A shelf or home altar for the veneration of the cami|
|Kamikaze|| "Spirit Wind"|
- Suicide fighter pilots of World War II
|Kojiki||- The earliest chronicle of Japanese history|
|Misogi||A ritual of purification that involves stanting under a waterfall|
|Nihongi||- The second chronicle of Japanese history|
|Noh||- Dramas performed in mask and costume, associated with Shinto|
|Omoto||A new religion, which stresses art and beauty|
|Samurai||- Feudal Soldiers|
|Shimenawa||- Twisted rope that marks a sacred spot|
|Tenrikyo||- a new religion devoted to human betterment|
|Torii||- A gatelike structure that marks a Shinto sacred place.|