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superior

toward the head end or uppr part of a structor or the body, above

inferior (caudal)

away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body, below

ventral

toward or at the front of the body, in front of

dorsal (posterior)

toward or at the back of the body, behind

medial

toward or at the midline of the body, on the inner side of

lateral

away from the midline of the body on the outer side of

proximal

closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

distal

farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body drunki

superficial (external)

toward or at the body surface

deep (internal)

away from the body surface, more internal

flexion

bending movement that decreases the angle of th ejoint and brings the articulating bones closer together-usually occurs along the sagittal plane

extension

the reverse flexion, increases the angle of the joint along the sagittal plane

hyperextension

increasing angle of joint beyond the normal anatomical position

dorsiflexion

bending motion of the angle that would allow you to stand on your heels; standing on your heels

plantarflexion

bending moving that occurs at the ankle joint that would allow you to stand on your toes

abduction

movement of a limb away from the midline of the body; movement occurs along the frontal plane

adduction

movement of limb toward the midline of the body

circumduction

movement of a limb in a circular motion

medial (internal) rotation

turning inside; crossing over; rotating the anterior surface of a limb toward the midline of the body; movement is common at the hip & shoulder points;

lateral (external) rotation

rotating the anterior surface of a limb away from the midline of the body; common at the hip & should points

supination

rotating the forearm so the palms face anterior; holding cup of soup; bones are parallel

pronation

rotating the forearm so that the palms face posteriorly or interiorly; bones cross over each other;

inversion

sole of the foot is turned medially; inward;

eversion

sole of the foot is turned laterally; outward;

protraction

anterior movement along the transverse plane; forward;

retraction

opposite of protraction; posterior movement along the transverse plane;

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