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rita pmp questions

CHAPTER TWO Project Management Framework

Answer

Four project managers are having lunch together and discussing their projects. Most of the time they are just complaining about how hard projects are to manage in their company. Some complain about the stakeholders and the number of changes they cause. Others talk about how hard it is to get people to cooperate and perform. One project manager wants to focus on the advantages of the matrix-type organization they all work in for their projects. Which of the following would he mention?
A. Improved project manager control over resources
B. More than one boss for project teams
C. Communications are easier
D. Reporting is easier

Answer A
Explanation Remember that if the question doesn't state what it is comparing to, it is comparing to a functional organization.

Two project managers have just realized that they are in a weak matrix organization and that their power as project managers is quite limited. One figures out that he is really a project expediter and the other realizes he is really a project coordinator. How is a project expediter different from a project coordinator?
A. The project expediter cannot make decisions.
B. The project expediter can make more decisions.
C. The project expediter reports to a higher-level manager.
D. The project expediter has some authority.

Answer A
Explanation The project coordinator reports to a higher-level manager and has authority to make some decisions. The project expediter has no authority to make decisions.

In a projectized organization, the project team:
A. Reports to many bosses.
B. Has no loyalty to the project.
C. Reports to the functional manager.
D. Will not always have a home

Answer D
Explanation The main drawback of the projectized organization is that at the end of the project, the team is dispersed but they do not have a functional department (home) to which to return.

A project manager is trying to complete a software development project, but cannot get enough attention for the project. Resources are focused on completing process-related work and the project manager has little authority to properly assign resources. What form of organization must the project manager be working in?
A. Functional
B. Matrix
C. Expediter
D. Coordinator

Answer A
Explanation In a functional organization, the project manager has the least support for the project and has little authority to assign resources. Choices C and D are roles in a weak matrix organization.

A project manager has very little project experience, but he has been assigned as the project manager of a new project. Because he will be working in a matrix organization to complete his project, he can expect communications to be:
A. Simple.
B. Open and accurate.
C. Complex.
D. Hard to automate.

Answer C
Explanation Because a project done in a matrix organization involves people from across the organization, communications are more complex.

A project team member is talking to another team member and complaining that many people are asking him to do things. If he works in a functional organization, who has the power to give direction to the team member?
A. The project manager
B. The functional manager
C. The team
D. Tight matrix

Answer B
Explanation In a functional organization, the functional manager is the team member's boss and probably also the project manager's boss.

Who has the MOST power in a projectized organization?
A. The project manager
B. The functional manager
C. The team
D. They all share power

Answer A
Explanation In a projectized organization, the entire company is organized by projects, giving the project manager the most power.

All of the following are characteristics of a project EXCEPT:
A. Temporary.
B. Definite beginning and end.
C. Interrelated activities.
D. Repeats itself every month.

Answer D
Explanation Choice D implies that the whole project repeats every month. Generally, the only things that might repeat in a project are some activities. The whole project does not repeat.

All of the following are parts of the team's stakeholder management effort EXCEPT:
A. Giving stakeholders extras.
B. Identifying stakeholders.
C. Determining stakeholders' needs.
D. Managing stakeholders' expectations.

Answer A
Explanation Giving stakeholders extras is known as gold plating. This is not effective stakeholder or quality management.

A manager and the head of engineering discuss a change to a major work package. After the meeting, the manager contacts you and tells you to complete the paperwork to make the change. This is an example of:
A. Management attention to scope management.
B. Management planning.
C. A project expediter position.
D. A change control system.

Answer C
Explanation This is an example of a project expediter position because you are not evaluating the change, looking for impacts, etc. You are merely implementing others' requests. In this case, you are acting as the project expediter.

The project is in the planning process group when three stakeholders come to the project manager asking for information on the company's new project management methodology. They want to know where it came from and why it is different from the way they currently manage projects. These stakeholders are also friends of the project manager, and the entire group has worked together for years. The project is using some new terms like corrective action that are making some stakeholders nervous, as they are unsure whether the way projects will be managed is going to change along with new terms. What should the project manager do?
A. Advise the stakeholders that she will keep them in the communication loop for the project.
B. Supply a list of new terms and their definitions.
C. Notify the project management office (PMO).
D. Make sure she maintains her authority as the project manager even though the stakeholders are her friends.

Answer C
Explanation Some students may think this question has more than one right answer. It does not. There are many things the project manager can do, but what should be done? The company policies are managed by the project management office and the project manager should make sure the stakeholders have clear information by sending them directly to the authority on company policies for project management.

A project manager is managing his second project. It started one month after the first and both are ongoing. Though his first project is small, this one seems to be growing in size every day. As each day passes, the project manager is beginning to feel more and more in need of help. The project manager has recently heard that there was another project in the company last year that is similar to his second project. What should he do?
A. Contact the other project manager and ask for assistance.
B. Obtain historical records and guidance from the project management office (PMO).
C. Wait to see if the project is impacted by the growth in scope.
D. Make sure the scope for the project is agreed to by all the stakeholders.

Answer B
Explanation There are many things the project manager could do. Choice A is not the best choice, as the other project manager might not be an experienced mentor. His advice might not be adequate to help this project manager. Choice C is reactive, while a project manager should be proactive. Choice D is not the best choice. It would be helpful, but does not specifically address the issues in this situation. If the PMO is contacted, the project manager can receive the knowledge of many project managers, historical information from many projects, and have the assistance of someone whose job it is to help.

The project life cycle differs from the product life cycle in that the project life cycle:
A. Does not incorporate a methodology.
B. Is different for each industry.
C. Can spawn many projects.
D. Describes project management activities.

Answer B
Explanation The project life cycle does incorporate a methodology-for doing the work-so choice A cannot be best. It is the product life cycle that spawns many projects, so choice C cannot be best. Project management activities are described in the project management process, so choice D cannot be best. The project life cycle is different for each industry, so choice B is the best answer.

Management by objectives works only if:
A. It is supported by management.
B. The rules are written down.
C. The project does not impact the objectives.
D. The project includes the objectives in the project charter.

Answer A
Explanation The best answer is the need for management to support the objectives.

Your management has decided that all orders will be treated as projects and that project managers will be used to update orders daily, to resolve issues, and to ensure that the customer formally accepts the product within 30 days of completion. Revenue from the individual orders can vary from US $100 to US $150,000. The project manager will not be required to perform planning or provide documentation other than daily status. How would you define this situation?
A. Because each individual order is a temporary endeavor:' each order is a project.
B. This is program management since there are multiple projects involved.
C. This is a recurring process.
D. Orders incurring revenue over $100,000 would be considered projects and would involve project management.

Answer C
Explanation Because orders are numerous and of short duration, this situation is a process, not a project.

The previous project manager for your project managed it without much project organization. There is a lack of management control and no clearly defined project deliverables. Which of the following would be the BEST choice for getting your project better organized?
A. Adopt a life cycle approach to the project.
B. Develop lessons learned for each phase.
C. Develop specific work plans for each work package.
D. Develop a description of the product of the project.

Answer A
Explanation Choice B would help improve subsequent phases, but would do nothing for control and deliverables. Choice C would help control each phase, but would not control the integration of the phases into a cohesive whole. Choice D would help, but not help both control and deliverables for each phase. Effective project management requires a life cycle approach to running the project. Choice A is the only answer that covers both control and deliverables.

A project team is working on manufacturing a new product, but they are having difficulty creating a project charter. What is the BEST description of the real problem?
A. They have not identified the project objectives.
B. They are working on a process and not a project.
C. The end date has not been set.
D. They have not identified the product of the project.

Answer: B
Explanation This work has entered the manufacturing stage. Manufacturing is generally considered a process, not a project, as it is not temporary. A project charter will not be appropriate here.

One of your team members informs you that he does not know which of the many projects he is working on is the most important. Who should determine the priorities among projects in a company?
A. The project manager
B. The project management team
C. The project management office
D. The team

Answer C
Explanation Because the question talks about priorities among projects, this cannot be the role of the project manager (choice A), the project management team (choice B), or the project team (choice D).

A market demand, a business need, and/or legal requirement are examples of:
A. Reasons to hire a project manager.
B. Reasons projects are initiated.
C. Reasons people or businesses become stakeholders.
D. Reasons to sponsor a project.

Answer B
Explanation These are all reasons projects are initiated.

Operational work is different from project work in that it is:
A. Unique
B. Temporary
C. On-going and repetitive.
D. A part of every project activity.

Answer C
Explanation Operational work is that which is ongoing to sustain an organization.

Company procedures require the creation of a lessons learned document. Which of the following is the BEST use of lessons learned?
A. Historical records for future projects
B. Planning record for the current project
C. Informing the team about what the project manager has done
D. Informing the team about the project management plan

Answer A
Explanation Notice that this question asks about the use of a tool of project management. Many people can learn from a book what a lessons learned document is, but questions like this can more readily be answered if you actually use the tool and know from experience its value. Ask yourself about the other tools of project management. Why are they beneficial? The BEST use of lessons learned is choice A. There are other tools that are better for accomplishing the things listed in the other choices.

Lessons learned are BEST completed by:
A. The project manager.
B. The team.
C. The sponsor.
D. The stakeholders.

Answer D
Explanation The best answer is stakeholders, as their input is critical for collecting all the lessons learned on each project. The term stakeholders includes all the other groups.

Consideration of ongoing operations and maintenance is crucially important to products of projects. Ongoing operations and maintenance should:
A. Be included as activities to be performed during project closure.
B. Have a separate phase in the project life cycle, because a large portion of life cycle costs is devoted to maintenance and operations.
C. Not be viewed as part of a project. A project is temporary with a definite beginning and end.
D. Be viewed as a separate project.

Answer C
Explanation Remember the definition of a project: temporary and unique. Operations and maintenance are considered on-going activities, not temporary. Therefore, such work is not considered a project or part of a project.

What is a program?
A. An initiative set up by management
B. A means to gain benefits and control of related projects
C. A group of unrelated projects managed in a coordinated way
D. A government regulation

Answer B
Explanation Did you select choice C? If so, you missed the word unrelated:' Programs are groups of related projects.

A company is making an effort to improve its project performance and create historical records of past projects. What is the BEST way to accomplish this?
A. Create project management plans
B. Create lessons learned.
C. Create network diagrams
D. Create status reports

Answer B
Explanation Lessons learned help to avoid future pitfalls and use the good ideas of past projects. This leads to improvements in future projects.

Project Management Processes CHAPTER THREE

In which project management process group is the detailed project budget created?
A. Initiating
B. Before the project management process
C. Planning
D. Executing

Answer C
Explanation Notice the use of the word "detailed." Such a budget is created during the planning process group.

The project charter is created in which project management process group?
A. Executing
B. Planning
C. Closing
D. Initiating

Answer D
Explanation The project charter is needed before planning and execution of the work can begin.

The project team has just completed the initial project schedule and budget. The NEXT thing to do is:
A. Identify risks.
B. Begin iterations.
C. Determine communications requirements.
D. Create a bar (Gantt) chart.

Answer C
Explanation Communications requirements and quality standards are needed before risks (especially risks relating to communications and quality) can be determined (choice A). Iterations (choice B) cannot begin until the risks are identified, qualified, quantified, and responses developed. These then create the need to revise the WBS and other parts of the project management plan. A bar chart (choice D) would have been done during the creation of the schedule, so it cannot be the next thing. Of the choices listed, determine communications requirements (choice C) is the best.

A detailed project schedule can be created only after creating the:
A. Project budget.
B. Work breakdown structure.
C. Project management plan.
D. Detailed risk assessment.

Answer B
Explanation In the project management process, the project budget (choice A), project management plan (choice C), and detailed risk assessment (choice D) come after the schedule. The only answer that could be an input is the WBS.

The person who should be in control of the project during project planning is the:
A. Project manager.
B. Team member.
C. Functional manager.
D. Sponsor.

Answer A
Explanation The project manager should be named early in the project, during project initiating if possible.

Which of the following is NOT an input to the initiating process group?
A. Company processes
B. Company culture
C. Historical WBSs
D. Project scope statement

Answer D
Explanation Notice the question asks which is NOT an input to the initiating process group. Did you read it correctly? The project scope statement (choice D) is an output of the planning process group. Did you select choice A? Companies should have processes in place for hiring resources, reporting, and managing risks on projects (to name only a few). Does yours?

The project sponsor has just signed the project charter. What is the NEXT thing to do?
A. Begin to complete work packages.
B. Verify Scope.
C. Start integrated change control.
D. Start to create management plans.

Answer D
Explanation The project charter is created during the initiating process group. Therefore the question is asking what is done next in either the initiating process group or the planning process group. For this type of question, you should look for the choice that occurs closest to the process group you are in. Choice A is done during the executing process group. Choices Band C are done during the monitoring and controlling process group. Choice D is the best choice, as it is part of the planning process group.

The high-level project schedule constraints have just been determined. What project management process group are you in?
A. Initiating
B. Planning
C. Executing
D. Monitoring and controlling

Answer A
Explanation High-level project constraints are determined during the initiating process group.

The WBS and WBS dictionary are completed. The project team has begun working on identifying risks. The sponsor contacts the project manager, requesting that the responsibility assignment matrix be issued. The project has a budget of US $100,000 and is taking place in three countries
using 14 human resources. There is little risk expected for the project, and the project manager has managed many projects similar to this one. What is the NEXT thing to do?
A. Understand the experience of the sponsor on similar projects.
B. Create an activity list.
C. Make sure the project scope is defined.
D. Complete risk management and issue the responsibility assignment matrix.

Answer B
Explanation Look at the order of planning the project the team has chosen. Though understanding the experience of the sponsor (choice A) might sound like a good idea, the sponsor is a stakeholder and understanding the stakeholders is part of stakeholder analysis. That should have occurred before the creation of a WBS. In planning the project, the project scope is defined (choice C is another way of saying finalize the project scope statement) and would come before creating a WBS. Choice D cannot be best, as that work does not come next in the process. Other work, like creating a network diagram, should be completed before risk management can effectively be done. The only correct choice is the activity list (choice B).

A project manager does not have much time to spend planning before the mandatory start date arrives. He therefore wants to move through planning as effectively as possible. Which of the following would you recommend?
A. Make sure you have a signed project charter and then start the WBS.
B. Create an activity list before creating a network diagram.
C. Document all the known risks before you document the high-level assumptions.
D. Finalize the quality management plan before you determine quality metrics.

Answer B
Explanation This question is asking which of the choices is the most effective way to move through the planning process. Choice A skips the important steps of defining the scope and other activities. High-level assumptions are determined prior to risk identification in the planning process, making choice C incorrect. Metrics are part of the quality management plan, making choice D incorrect. Choice B is best, as the activity list is created immediately before the network diagram.

The BEST time to assign a project manager to a project is during:
A. Executing.
B. Closing.
C. Initiating.
D. Planning.

Answer C
Explanation The project manager must be assigned during initiating.

A project manager gets a call from a team member notifying him that there is a variance between the speed of a system on the project and the desired or planned speed. The project manager is surprised because that performance measurement was not identified in planning. If the project manager then evaluates whether the variance warrants a response, he is in what project management process?
A. Initiating
B. Executing
C. Monitoring and controlling
D. Closing

Answer C
Explanation Even though the measurement was not identified in planning, the project manager would still have to investigate the variance and determine if it is important. Therefore, the project manager is in the project monitoring and controlling process group.

A team member notifies the project manager that the activities comprising a work package are no longer appropriate. It would be BEST for the project manager to be in what part of the project management process?
A. Corrective action
B. Integrated change control
C. Monitoring and controlling
D. Project closing

Answer C
Explanation If you chose another part of the project management process, you probably forgot that the situation needs to be evaluated by the project manager before recommending a change or entering integrated change control.

During a team meeting, a team member asks about the measurements that will be used on the project to judge performance. The team member feels that some of the measures related to activities assigned him are not valid measurements. The project is BEST considered in what part of the project management process?
A. Closing
B. Monitoring and controlling
C. Executing
D. Initiating

Answer C
Explanation This situation does not describe an actual measurement (a monitoring and controlling activity) but rather a meeting occurring during project executing talking about control issues.

Which of the following would be the MOST appropriate thing to do during the initiating process group?
A. Create a detailed description of the project deliverables.
B. Get familiar with the company culture and structure as it relates to the project.
C. Identify the root cause of problems.
D. Ensure all project management processes are complete.

Answer B
Explanation Choice A occurs during the planning process group as part of creating the project scope statement. Since you must already have problems in order to determine their root cause, choice C must occur during the monitoring and controlling process group, not initiating. Choice D occurs during the closing process group.

Which of the following is a characteristic of project management processes?
A. Iterative
B. Unique
C. Unnecessary
D. Standardized

Answer A
Explanation As the project life cycle progresses, more information becomes available, allowing the team to manage the project to a more detailed level.

Which project management process group normally takes the MOST project time and resources?
A. Planning
B. Design
C. Integration
D. Executing

Answer D
Explanation Doing the actual work will normally take the MOST project time and resources.

All of the following must be performed during project initiating EXCEPT:
A. Identify and document business needs.
B. Create a project scope statement.
C. Divide large projects into phases.
D. Accumulate and evaluate historical information.

Answer B
Explanation A project scope statement (choice B) is generally created in project planning.

Closure includes all of the following EXCEPT:
A. Determining performance measures.
B. Turning over the product of the project.
C. Documenting the degree to which each project phase was properly closed after its completion.
D. Updating the company's organizational process assets.

Answer A
Explanation Performance measures are determined earlier in the project so they can be used to measure progress during the project, making choice A the only correct answer to this question.

The first phase of your project has come to an end. What should you ensure is done BEFORE beginning the next phase?
A. Verify that the resources are available for the next phase.
B. Check the project's progress compared to its baselines.
C. Confirm that the phase has reached its objectives, and have its deliverables formally accepted.
D. Recommend corrective action to bring the project results in line with project expectations.

Answer C
Explanation A phase or project must be formally closed and accepted.

In which process group does the team measure and analyze the work being done on the project?
A. Initiating
B. Executing
C. Monitoring and controlling
D. Closing

Answer C
Explanation During the monitoring and controlling process group, project performance is measured, and needed changes are identified and approved.

Which process groups must be included in every project?
A. Planning, executing, and closing
B. Initiating, planning, and executing
C. Initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing
D. Planning, executing, and monitoring and controlling

Answer C
Explanation All five process groups are addressed in each project. It is the responsibility of the project manager to determine the level of attention to give to each process group.

Control Schedule, Report Performance, and Administer Procurements are parts of which process group?
A. Initiating
B. Planning
C. Executing
D. Monitoring and controlling

Answer D
Explanation All of these processes are part of monitoring and controlling.

Which process group focuses on completing the requirements of the project?
A. Initiating
B. Planning
C. Executing
D. Closing

Answer C
Explanation The executing process group is where work is done to produce the product of the project.

All of the following occur during the planning process group EXCEPT:
A. Develop Project Charter.
B. Create WBS.
C. Estimate Costs.
D. Sequence Activities.

Answer A
Explanation Develop Project Charter (choice A) occurs in the initiating process group.
Integration Management CHAPTER FOUR Answer

Effective project integration usually requires an emphasis on:
A. The personal careers of the team members.
B. Timely updates to the project management plan.
C. Effective communications at key interface points.
D. Product control.

Answer C
Explanation This question is asking for the most important of the choices. Think about what is involved in integration: project management plan development, project management plan execution, and integrated change control. In order to integrate the project components into a cohesive whole, communication is key when one activity will interface with another, one team member will interface with another, and any other form of interfacing will occur. Choices Band D are parts of the monitoring and controlling process group, while integration includes more than control. Choice A falls under project management plan execution.

The need for is one of the major driving forces for communication in a project.
A. Optimization
B. Integrity
C. Integration
D. Differentiation

Answer C
Explanation The project manager is an integrator. This is a question about your role as an integrator and communicator.

Which of the following describes the BEST use of historical records from previous projects:
A. Estimating, life cycle costing, and project planning
B. Risk management, estimating, and creating lessons learned
C. Project planning, estimating, and creating a status report
D. Estimating, risk management, and project planning

Answer D
Explanation Historical records are not generally used for life cycle costing (choice A), lessons learned (choice B), or creating status reports (choice C).

When it comes to changes, the project manager's attention is BEST given to:
A. Making changes.
B. Tracking and recording changes.
C. Informing the sponsor of changes.
D. Preventing unnecessary changes.

Answer D
Explanation Project managers should be proactive. The only proactive answer here is preventing unnecessary changes.

A project manager has managed four projects for the company and is being considered to join the project management office team. The following is discovered during the evaluation of his performance. The project manager's first project had an ending cost variance of -500, used two critical resources, needed to rework the project charter during project executing and was ranked 14th in priority within the company. The second project finished with a schedule variance of +100, was completed with a vastly compressed schedule, and received a letter of recommendation from the sponsor, but the product of the project was not used. The third project had 23 percent more changes than expected, had an SPI of 0.90, and 25 open items in the issue log when the project was completed.
Each of these projects had a cost budget of US $1,000 and 20 to 28 percent more changes than others of its size. The project management office decided not to add this project manager to the team. Which of the following BEST describes why this might have happened?
A. The project manager has only managed low-priority projects, and he had to compress the schedule, showing that he does not have the skill to work in the project management office.
B. Issue logs should not be used on projects of this size, showing that the project manager does not have the knowledge to work in a project management office.
C. The project manager did not effectively involve the stakeholders, showing that he does not have the knowledge to work in the project management office.
D. The project manger had two critical resources on his team and still needed to rework the project charter, showing that he does not have the discipline to work in the project management office.

Answer C
Explanation This is a very confusing question. Notice all the distracters that mayor may not
be relevant? Since most project schedules are compressed by the project manager during project planning, choice A is not a logical reason and so cannot be the best choice. Issue logs can be used on smaller projects, which means choice B is not the best choice. The number of critical (or hard-to-get) resources noted in choice D has no bearing on the need to rework the project charter. Since it does not make logical sense, it cannot be the best choice. Take another look at the second and third projects. In the second project, the product of the project was not used. This implies many things, including the possibilities that either the project manager did not identify the requirements of all the stakeholders or that the business need of the project changed dramatically and the project manager did not notice. This indicates a major flaw in the project manager's abilities. In the third project, there were 25 concerns of the stakeholders that were not addressed before the project was completed. Again, this shows a major lack of project management knowledge. The needs of the stakeholders and not just the sponsor must be taken into account on all projects. This makes choice C the best choice.

All of the following are parts of an effective change management plan EXCEPT:
A. Procedures
B. Standards for reports
C. Meetings
D. Lessons learned

Answer D
Explanation A change management plan includes the processes and procedures that allow smooth evaluation and tracking of changes. Lessons learned (choice D) are reviews of the processes and procedures to improve them; they are not part of the system.

A work authorization system can be used to:
A. Manage who does each activity.
B. Manage what time and in what sequence work is done.
C. Manage when each activity is done.
D. Manage who does each activity and when it is done.

Answer B
Explanation Who does each activity (choices A and D) is managed with the schedule and responsibility assignment matrices. The project schedule manages when each activity is done (choice C). A work authorization system is used to coordinate when and in what order the work is performed so that work and people may properly interface with other work and other people.

A project is plagued by changes to the project charter. Who has the primary responsibility to decide if these changes are necessary?
A. The project manager
B. The project team
C. The sponsor
D. The stakeholders

Answer C
Explanation The sponsor issues the project charter and so he or she should help the project manager control changes to the charter. The primary responsibility lies with the sponsor.

Integration is done by the:
A. Project manager.
B. Team.
C. Sponsor.
D. Stakeholders.

Answer A
Explanation Integration is a key responsibility of the project manager, so choice A is the best answer.

Which of the following BEST describes the project manager's role as an integrator?
A. Help team members become familiar with the project.
B. Put all the pieces of a project into a cohesive whole.
C. Put all the pieces of a project into a program.
D. Get all team members together into a cohesive whole.

Answer B
Explanation Integration refers to combining activities, not team members (choice D). Could the project manager smash two team members together and create one big team member? (I just wanted to see if you are still laughing about this PMP thing!)

Approved corrective action is an input to:
A. Verify Scope.
B. Direct and Manage Project Execution.
C. Develop Project Charter.
D. Develop Schedule.

Answer B
Explanation Choice B is the only correct response.

Double declining balance is a form of:
A. Decelerated depreciation.
B. Straight line depreciation.
C. Accelerated depreciation.
D. Life cycle costing.

Answer C
Explanation We need to know that double declining balance is a form of depreciation. That eliminates choice D. We also know that double declining balance is a form of accelerated depreciation, eliminating choices A and B. Therefore, C is the correct response.

You are a new project manager who has never managed a project before. You have been asked to plan a new project. It would be BEST in this situation to rely on during planning in order to improve your chance of success.
A. Your intuition and training
B. Stakeholder analysis
C. Historical information
D. Configuration management

Answer C
Explanation Because you have no experience, you will have to look at the experience of others. This information is captured in the historical records from previous projects.

Which of the following BEST describes a project management plan?
A. A printout from project management software
B. A bar chart
C. Risk, staffing, process improvement, and other management plans
D. The project scope

Answer C
Explanation The project management plan contains more than just a bar or Gantt chart and the project manager's plan for completing the work. It includes all the management plans for the project.

You are taking over a project and determine the following: Activity B has an early finish (EF) of day 3, a late finish (LF) of day 6, and an early start (ES) of day 2. Activity L is being done by a hard-to-get resource. The cost performance index (CPI) is 1.1, and the schedule performance index (SPI) is 0.8. Based on this information, what would you be more concerned about?
A. Float
B. Resources
C. Cost
D. Schedule

Answer D
Explanation You may not understand this question until you review the rest of the book. Come back to it. This question tries to integrate a lot of information and test your ability to discern
what information is relevant to the question. Though some figures to calculate float are provided (choice A), there is no information to say that the float is a problem. Most projects have hard-to-get resources (choice B). The question does not give an indication that having hard-to-get resources is a problem. CPI (choice C) is greater than one, so cost is not something to worry about. SPI is less than one, so choice D is the best answer.

A project management plan should be realistic in order to be used to manage the project. Which of the following is the BEST method to achieve a realistic project management plan?
A. Sponsor creates the project management plan based on input from the project manager.
B. Functional manager creates the project management plan based on input from the project manager.
C. Project manager creates the project management plan based on input from senior management.
D. Project manager creates the project management plan based on input from the team.

Answer D
Explanation If we were to rephrase the question, it is asking, Who creates the project management plan? The best answer is that project management plans are created by the project manager but require input from the team.

You are taking over a project during the planning process group and discover that six individuals have signed the project charter. Which of the following should MOST concern you?
A. Who will be a member of the change control board
B. Spending more time on configuration management
C. Getting a single project sponsor
D. Determining the reporting structure

Answer B
Explanation This situation implies that there are six areas concerned with this project. In addition to added communications requirements, you should be concerned with competing needs and requirements impacting your efforts on configuration management.

The project charter for a project was approved for planning and you have just been assigned as project manager. Realizing that project planning is an ongoing effort throughout the project, which processes are you MOST likely to combine?
A. Create WBS and Define Activities
B. Estimate Activity Durations and Develop Schedule
C. Develop Human Resource Plan and Estimate Costs
D. Estimate Costs and Determine Budget

Answer A
Explanation The Create WBS process consists of subdividing major project deliverables (scope) into smaller, more manageable work packages. The Define Activities process defines the activities that must take place to produce those deliverables.

All of the following are parts of Direct and Manage Project Execution EXCEPT:
A. Identifying changes.
B. Using a work breakdown structure.
C. Implementing corrective actions.
D. Setting up a project control system.

Answer D
Explanation A project control system (choice D) is set up during the planning process group, not during project executing. Did choice B confuse you? A WBS is created in project planning, but can
be used to help manage the project during project executing. The wording here was not creating the
WBS but using the WBS:'

A project manager is appointed to head a highly technical project in an area with which this person has limited familiarity. The project manager delegates the processes of Develop Schedule, Estimate Costs, Define Activities, and Estimate Activity Resources to various project team members, and basically serves as an occasional referee and coordinator of activities. The results of this approach are likely to be:
A. A team functioning throughout the project at a very high level, demonstrating creativity and commitment.
B. A team that initially experiences some amounts of confusion, but that after a period of time becomes a cohesive and effective unit.
C. A team that is not highly productive, but that stays together because of the work environment created by the project manager.
D. A team that is characterized by poor performance, low morale, high levels of conflict, and high turnover.

Answer D
Explanation A project manager must manage a project. If all activities are delegated, chaos ensues and team members will spend more time jockeying for position than completing activities.

You are in the middle of executing a major modification to an existing product when you learn that the resources promised at the beginning of the project are not available. The BEST thing to do is to:
A. Show how the resources were originally promised to your project.
B. Replan the project without the resources.
C. Explain the impact if the promised resources are not made available.
D. Crash the project.

Answer C
Explanation Choices B and D are essentially delaying the situation. Instead, the project manager should try to prevent the situation by showing the consequences if the resources are not available (choice C). This is a more effective strategy than saying but you gave them to me:' as in choice A.

You have been assigned to manage the development of an organization's first Web site. The site will be highly complex and interactive, and neither your project team nor the client has much experience with Web site development.
The timeline is extremely aggressive. Any delay will be costly for both your firm and the client. You have a project sponsor and have achieved agreement and Sign-off on both the project charter and the project management plan. Client personnel have been kept fully informed of the project's progress through status reports and regular meetings. The project is on schedule and within the budget, and a final perfunctory review has been scheduled.
Suddenly you hear that the entire effort may be cancelled because the product developed is totally unacceptable. What is the MOST likely cause of this situation?
A. A key stakeholder was not adequately involved in the project.
B. The project charter and project management plan were not thoroughly explained or adequately reviewed by the client.
C. Communications arrangements were inadequate and did not provide the required information to interested parties.
D. The project sponsor failed to provide adequate support for the project.

Answer A
Explanation A single high-level executive can end an entire project if he or she is not satisfied with the results, even if that person has, by choice, been only tangentially involved in the project. It is critical to ensure that all of the final decision makers have been identified early in a project in order to ensure that their concerns are addressed.

The project manager has just received a change from the customer that does not affect the project schedule and is easy to complete. What should the project manager do FIRST?
A. Make the change happen as soon as possible.
B. Contact the project sponsor for permission.
C. Go to the change control board.
D. Evaluate the impacts on other project constraints.

Answer D
Explanation The other impacts to the project should be evaluated first. Such impacts include scope, cost, quality, risk, resources, and customer satisfaction. Once these are evaluated, the change control board, if one exists, can approve or deny the change.

Your company just won a major new project. It will begin in three months and is valued at US $2,000,000. You are the project manager for an existing project. What is the FIRST thing you should do once you hear of the new project?
A. Ask management how the new project will use resources.
B. Resource level your project.
C. Crash your project.
D. Ask management how the new project will affect your project.

Answer D
Explanation As you work on a project, you need to constantly reevaluate the project objectives and how the project relates to other concurrent projects. Is your project still in line with corporate objectives? If the other project will impact yours, you need to be proactive and work on options now.

You are a project manager who was just assigned to take over a project from another project manager who is leaving the company. The previous project manager tells you that the project is on schedule, but only because he has constantly pushed the team to perform. What is the FIRST thing you should do as the new project manager?
A. Check risk status.
B. Check cost performance.
C. Determine a management strategy.
D. Tell the team your objectives.

Answer C
Explanation Before you can do anything else, you have to know what YOU are going to do. Developing the management strategy will provide the framework for all the rest of the choices presented and the other activities that need to be done.

You are assigned as the project manager in the middle of the project. The project is within the baselines, but the customer is not happy with the performance of the project. What is the FIRST thing you should do?
A. Discuss it with the project team.
B. Recalculate baselines.
C. Renegotiate the contract.
D. Meet with the customer.

Answer D
Explanation First, you need to find out why the customer is not happy. Then meet with the team and determine options.

It is the middle of the project when the project manager is informed by her scheduler that the project control limits are secure. That same morning she receives a note from a team member about a problem he is having. The note says, "This activity is driving me crazy, and the manager of the accounting department won't help me until the activity's float is in jeopardy." In addition, the project manager has e-mails from a minor stakeholder and 14 e-mails from team members. While she is reading the e-mails, a team member walks into the project manager's office to tell her a corrective action was implemented by a team member from the project management office, but was not documented. What should the project manager do NEXT?
A. Report the documentation violation to the project management office, evaluate the security of the control limits, and review the e-mailing rules in the communications management plan.
B. Clarify the reasoning behind documentation being a problem, get the accounting department to assist the team member, and respond to the minor stakeholder.
C. Add the implemented corrective action to the historical records, discuss the value of documentation at the next team meeting, and smooth the team member with the accounting department problem.
D. Find out who caused the problem with the accounting department, respond to the minor stakeholder before responding to the other e-mails, and review the process listed in the communications plan for reporting concerns with the team member having the documentation problem.

Answer C
Explanation Notice how many situations are thrown at you in this question. It is important to practice reading through questions to discover what is important and what is just background information. In this question, the only thing relevant was the corrective action taken. Once you discover what the issue is, look at the choices to find out which is best for addressing the issue. What is the issue here? Did you realize that the team member's note is about a non-critical path activity? (Until the project float is in jeopardy means that there is float and, thus, it is not on the critical path.) So is the issue the non-critical path activity or the documentation? You might disagree with the logic, but in this case the answer is the documentation. In the real world, problems often repeat. Without a record of what was done, there is no opportunity to consider the same solution for future problems. Documentation is critical to projects. Because documentation becomes part of the historical records database, choice C is correct.

The client demands changes to the product specification that will add only two weeks to the critical path. Which of the following is the BEST thing for the project manager to do?
A. Compress the schedule to recover the two weeks.
B. Cut scope to recover the two weeks.
C. Consult with the sponsor about options.
D. Advise the client of the impact of the change.

Answer C
Explanation Do you remember what to do when there is a change? Evaluate first. You wouldn't take action before getting approval, so compressing the schedule (choice A) and cutting scope (choice
B) would happen after choices C and/or D. You would not go to the customer before going to your internal management, so choice D is not the correct thing to do next. The next step is to discuss options with the sponsor (choice C).

During project executing, the project manager determines that a change is needed to material purchased for the project. The project manager calls a meeting of the team to plan how to make the change. This is an example of:
A. Management by objectives.
B. Lack of a change management plan.
C. Good team relations.
D. Lack of a clear work breakdown structure.

Answer B
Explanation The project manager is asking how to make a change. The procedures, forms, sign- offs, and other similar requirements for handling changes should have already been defined in the change management plan (choice B). Because they weren't, the project manager will waste valuable work time trying to figure it out after the fact.

The project was going well when all of a sudden there were changes to the project coming from multiple stakeholders. After all the changes were determined, the project manager spent time with all the stakeholders to find out why there were changes and to discover any more.
The project work has quieted down when a team member casually mentions to the project manager that he added functionality to a product of the project. Do not worry he says, I did not impact time, cost, or quality! What should a project manager do FIRST?
A. Ask the team member how the need for the functionality was determined.
B. Hold a meeting to review the team member's completed work.
C. Look for other added functionality.
D. Ask the team member how he knows there is no time, cost, or quality impact.

Answer D
Explanation Notice that the first paragraph is extraneous. Also notice that the question states that the change has already been made. Your actions will be different than if the change had not been made. It is the project manager's job to investigate impacts, as the project manager is the only one who can tell how a change impacts the project as a whole. Choices A, B, and C could all be done, but they do not address the immediate concern. Choice D is the best answer since it begins the project manager's analysis of the impacts to the project as a whole by finding out what analysis has already been done. He can then determine how he must finalize the analysis as it applies to the entire
project. Can you see that?

You are asked to prepare a budget for completing a project that was started last year and then shelved for six months. All the following would be included in the budget EXCEPT:
A. Fixed costs.
B. Sunk costs.
C. Direct costs.
D. Variable costs.

Answer B
Explanation Sunk costs (choice B) are expended costs. The rule is that they should not be considered when deciding whether to continue with a troubled project.

Which of the following sequences represents straight line depreciation?
A. $100,$100,$100
B. $100,$120,$140
C. $100,$120,$160
D. $160, $140, $120

Answer A
Explanation Straight line depreciation uses the same amount each time period.

This project is chartered to determine new ways to extend the product life of one of the company's medium-producing products. The project manager comes from the engineering department, and the team comes from product management and marketing departments.
The project scope statement and project planning are completed when a stakeholder notifies the team that there is a better way to complete one of the work packages. They even supply a technical review letter from their department proving that the new way to complete the work package will actually be faster than the old way.
The project manager has had similar experiences with this department on other projects, and was expecting this to happen on this project. What is the FIRST thing the project manager should do?
A. Contact the department and complain again about their missing the deadline for submission of scope.
B. Look for how this schedule change will impact the cost to complete the work package and the quality of the product of the work package.
C. See if there is a way to change from a matrix environment to a functional organization so as to eliminate all the interference from other departments.
D. Ask the department if they have any other changes.

Answer B
Explanation Choice A could be done, but notice that it is not proactive? It would be helpful to get to the root cause of why this department always comes up with such ideas or changes after the project begins. However, this is not the immediate problem, the change is, and therefore choice A is not best. The type of project organization described is a matrix organization. There is not anything inherently wrong with such an organization, nor is there anything wrong in this particular situation that would require it to be changed, so choice C cannot be best. The department's history makes choice D something that should definitely be done, but the proposed change needs more immediate attention. Only choice B begins integrated change control by looking at the impact of one change on other project constraints.

Project A has an internal rate of return (IRR) of 21 percent. Project B has an IRR of 7 percent. Project C has an IRR of 31 percent. Project D has an IRR of 19 percent. Which of these would be the BEST project?
A. Project A
B. Project B
C. Project C
D. Project D

Answer C
Explanation Remember, the internal rate of return is similar to the interest rate you get from the bank. The higher the rate is, the better the return.

An output of the Close Project or Phase process is the creation of:
A. Project archives.
B. A project charter.
C. A project management plan.
D. A risk analysis plan.

Answer A
Explanation The project charter (choice B) is created in initiating. The project management plan (choice C) is an output of the planning process group. You have not seen the term risk analysis plan (choice D) in this book, so it is unlikely to be the best answer.

All of the following would occur during the Close Project or Phase process EXCEPT:
A. Creating lessons learned.
B. Formal acceptance.
C. Reducing resource spending.
D. Performing benefit cost analysis.

Answer D
Explanation Benefit cost analysis (choice D) is done earlier in the project to help select between alternatives. All the other choices are done during closing. Therefore choice D must be the best answer.

Which of the following is included in a project charter?
A. A risk management strategy
B. Work package estimates
C. Detailed resource estimates
D. The business need for the project

Answer D
Explanation This question may seem simple, but it is really testing if you know what is a correct project charter. Choices A and B do not come until project management planning, after the project charter. A project charter may include the names of some resources (the project manager, for example), but not detailed resources (choice C).

A project manager is trying to convince management to use more formal project management procedures and has decided to start improving the company's project management by obtaining a project charter. Which of the following BEST describes why the project charter would help the project manager?
A. It describes the details of what needs to be done.
B. It lists the names of all team members.
C. It gives the project manager authority.
D. It describes the project's history.

Answer C
Explanation The exam will ask questions like this to make sure you know the benefits you should be getting out of the process and tools of project management. The details of what needs to be done (choice A) are found in the WBS dictionary. The names of team members (choice B) are included
in the responsibility assignment matrix and other documents. Project history (choice D) is found in
the lessons learned and other project documents.

Linear programming is an example of what type of project selection criteria?
A. Constrained optimization
B. Comparative approach
C. Benefit measurement
D. Impact analysis

Answer A
Explanation Constrained optimization uses mathematical models. Linear programming is a mathematical model.

You have created the project charter, but could not get it approved. Your manager and his boss have asked that the project begin immediately. Which of the following is the BEST thing to do?
A. Set up an integrated change control process.
B. Show your manager the impact of proceeding without approval.
C. Focus on completing projects that have signed project charters.
D. Start work on only the critical path activities.

Answer B
Explanation The best thing to do would be to show the impact. This is the only choice that prevents future problems-always the best choice. The other choices just pretend the problem does not exist.

The engineering department has uncovered a problem with the cost accounting system and has asked the systems department to analyze what is wrong and fix the problem. You are a project manager working with the cost accounting programs on another project. Management has issued a change request to the change control board to add the new work to your project.
Your existing project has a cost performance index (CPI) of 1.2 and a schedule performance index (SPI) of 1.3 so you have some room to add work without delaying your existing project or going over budget. However, you cannot see how the new work fits within the project charter for your existing project. After some analysis, you determine that the new work and existing work do not overlap and can be done concurrently. They also require different skill sets. Which of the
following is the BEST thing to do?
A. Develop a project charter.
B. Reestimate the project schedule with input from the engineering department.
C. Verify the scope of the new work with the help of the stakeholders.
D. Identify specific changes to the existing work.

Answer A
Explanation How long did it take you to read this question? Expect long-winded questions on the exam. Take another look at the choices before you continue reading. Did you notice that each of the choices occurs during a different part of the project management process?
This question is essentially asking if the new work should be added to the existing project. There may be many business reasons to try to do this, but from a project management perspective, major additions to the project are generally discouraged. In this case, the question is trying to imply that the new work is a self-contained unit of work, has no overlap with the existing work and needs a different skill set. Therefore, it is generally best to make it a new project. The first step to answering this question is to realize that the work should be a separate project. The second step is to look at the choices and see which relates to initiating a new project. Choice B sounds like the best choice, but only if you did not realize that the new work should be a separate project. Choice C is done during project monitoring and controlling. Choice D is done during project executing. The project charter is developed in the initiating process group.

All technical work is completed on the project. Which of the following remains to be done?
A. Verify Scope
B. Plan Risk Responses
C. Create a staffing management plan
D. Complete lessons learned

Answer D
Explanation Did you pick choice A? Then you may have forgotten that the Verify Scope process is done during the monitoring and controlling process group, not the closing process group. The other plans (choices Band C) are done earlier in the project. The lessons learned (choice D) can only be completed after the work is completed.

Your company can accept one of three possible projects. Project A has a net present value (NPV) of US $30,000 and will take six years to complete. Project B has an NPV of US $60,000 and will take three years to complete. Project C has an NPV of US $90,000 and will take four years to complete. Based on this information, which project would you pick?
A. They all have the same value.
B. Project A
C. Project B
D. Project C

Answer D
Explanation Remember, project length is incorporated when computing NPV. You would choose the project that provides the most value, in this case the project with the highest NPV.
Scope Management CHAPTER FIVE Answer

A work breakdown structure numbering system allows the project staff to:
A. Systematically estimate costs of work breakdown structure elements.
B. Provide project justification.
C. Identify the level at which individual elements are found.
D. Use it in project management software.

Answer C
Explanation The numbering system allows you to quickly identify the level in the work breakdown structure where the specific element is found. It also helps to locate the element in the WBS dictionary.

The work breakdown structure can BEST be thought of as an effective aid for communications.
A. Team
B. Project manager
C. Customer
D. Stakeholder

Answer D
Explanation The term stakeholder encompasses all the other choices. In this case, it is the best answer since the WBS can be used (but does not need to be used) as a communications tool for all stakeholders to see what is included in the project.

Which of the following is a KEY output of the Verify Scope process?
A. A more complete scope management plan
B. Customer acceptance of project deliverables
C. Improved schedule estimates
D. An improved project management information system

Answer B
Explanation The output of the Verify Scope process is customer acceptance of project deliverables. The other choices all happen during project planning, well before the time that the Verify Scope process takes place.

During project executing, a team member comes to the project manager because he is not sure of what work he needs to accomplish on the project. Which of the following documents contain detailed descriptions of work packages?
A. WBS dictionary
B. Activity list
C. Project scope statement
D. Scope management plan

Answer A
Explanation Activity lists (choice B) may list the work package they relate to, but they do not contain detailed descriptions of the work packages. The project scope statement (choice C) defines the project scope, but it does not describe the work a team member is assigned. The scope management plan (choice D) describes how scope will be planned, managed, and controlled. It does not include a description of each work package. The WBS dictionary defines each element in the WBS. Therefore, descriptions of the work packages are in the WBS dictionary.

During what part of the project management process is the project scope statement created?
A. Initiating
B. Planning
C. Executing
D. Monitoring and controlling

Answer B
Explanation The project scope statement is an output of the Define Scope process, which occurs during project planning.

The program was planned years ago, before there was a massive introduction of new technology.
While planning the next project in this program, the project manager has expanded the scope management plan because as a project becomes more complex, the level of uncertainty in the scope:
A. Remains the same.
B. Decreases.
C. Decreases then increases.
D. Increases.

Answer D
Explanation Not all questions will be difficult. The level of uncertainty in scope increases based on the scale of effort required to identify all the scope. For larger projects it is more difficult to catch everything.

During a meeting with some of the project stakeholders, the project manager is asked to add work to the project scope. The project manager had access to correspondence about the project before the project charter was signed and remembers that the project sponsor specifically denied funding for the scope mentioned by these stakeholders. The BEST thing for the project manager to do is to:
A. Let the sponsor know of the stakeholders' request.
B. Evaluate the impact of adding the scope.
C. Tell the stakeholders the scope cannot be added.
D. Add the work if there is time available in the project schedule.

Answer C
Explanation Based on the information presented, there is no reason to try to convince the sponsor to add the work (choices B and D). Though one could let the sponsor know (choice A) the best choice would be to say no. A better choice would be to find the root cause of the problem, but that choice is not listed here.

A new project manager is being mentored by a more experienced certified project management professional (PMP). The new project manager is having difficulty finding enough time to manage the project because the product and project scope are being progressively elaborated. The PMP- certified project manager mentions that the basic tools for project management, such as a work breakdown structure, can be used during project executing to assist the project manager. For which of the following can a work breakdown structure be used?
A. Communicating with the customer
B. Showing calendar dates for each work package
C. Showing the functional managers for each team member
D. Showing the business need for the project

Answer A
Explanation A WBS does not show dates or responsibility assignments (choices B and C). Those are included on the bar chart and possibly in the communications management plan. The business need (choice D) is shown in the project charter. Never thought that a WBS could be shown to the customer? Made you think! Of course it could be used for that purpose.
In this situation, the product and project scope are being fine tuned. It would save the project manager time to effectively manage progressive elaboration if the WBS was used to assist. The WBS helps ensure everyone understands the scope of the work.

During a project team meeting, a team member suggests an enhancement to the scope that is beyond the scope of the project charter. The project manager points out that the team needs to concentrate on completing all the work and only the work required. This is an example of:
A. Change management process.
B. Scope management.
C. Quality analysis.
D. Scope decomposition.

Answer B
Explanation The team member is suggesting an enhancement that is outside the scope of the project charter. Scope management involves focusing on doing the work and only the work in the project management plan that meets the objectives of the project charter. The project manager is performing scope management.

When should the Verify Scope process be done?
A. At the end of the project
B. At the beginning of the project
C. At the end of each phase of the project
D. During the planning processes

Answer C
Explanation The Verify Scope process occurs during the monitoring and controlling process group, so choices A, B, and D cannot be correct. Verify Scope is done at the end of each phase (the end of design, implementation, etc.), making choice C the best answer.

The project is mostly complete. The project has a schedule variance of 300 and a cost variance of -900. All but one of the quality control inspections have been completed and all have met the quality requirements. All items in the issue log have been resolved. Many of the resources have been released. The sponsor is about to call a meeting to obtain product verification when the customer notifies the project manager that they want to make a major change to the scope. The project manager should:
A. Meet with the project team to determine if this change can be made.
B. Ask the customer for a description of the change.
C. Explain that the change cannot be made at this point in the process.
D. Inform management.

Answer B
Explanation Do not jump into the problem without thinking. The customer only notified the project manager that they want to make a change:' They did not describe the change. The project manager would need to understand the nature of the change and have time to evaluate the impact of the change before doing anything else. Of these choices, the first thing to do is to determine what the change is (choice B) and then meet with the team (choice A), but only if their input is required. The project manager should not just say no (choice C) until he knows more about the possible change.
He also should not go to management (choice D) without more information.

You have just joined the project management office after five years of working on projects. One of the things you want to introduce to your company is the need to create and utilize WBSs. Some of the project managers are angry that you are asking them to do extra work. Which of the following would be the BEST thing you could tell the project managers to convince them to use WBSs?
A. Tell them it will prevent work from slipping through the cracks.
B. Tell them that it is not needed.
C. Tell them it is required only if the project involves contracts.
D. Tell them it is the only way to identify risks.

Answer A
Explanation Choice C is not generally true. Every project must have a WBS. Risks can be identified using various methods. Therefore, choice D is an incorrect statement and not the best answer.
Choice A, preventing work from being forgotten (slipping through the cracks) is ONE of the reasons the tool is used.

A new project manager has asked you for advice on creating a work breakdown structure. After you explain the process to her, she asks you what software she should use to create the WBS and what she should do with it when she is finished creating it. You might respond that it is not the picture that is the most valuable result of creating a WBS. It is:
A. A bar chart.
B. Team buy-in.
C. Activities.
D. A list of risks.

Answer B
Explanation The WBS is an input to all of these choices. However, team buy-in (choice B) is a direct result of the WBS creation process, while the other choices use the WBS to assist in their completion. The best answer is choice B.

To manage a project effectively, work should be broken down into small pieces. Which of the following does NOT describe how far to decompose the work?
A. Until it has a meaningful conclusion
B. Until it cannot be logically subdivided further
C. Until it can be done by one person
D. Until it can be realistically estimated

Answer C
Explanation The lowest level of the WBS is a work package, which can be performed by more than one person.

A project manager may use to make sure the team members clearly know what work is included in each of their work packages.
A. The project scope statement
B. The product scope
C. A WBS dictionary
D. A schedule

Answer C
Explanation The project scope statement (choice A) describes work on a high-level basis. Work packages need to be specific to enable team members to complete their work with less gold plating. The product scope (choice B) would not tell team members what work is assigned to them. The team should have a copy of the schedule (choice D), but a schedule will not show them what work is included in each of their work packages. Work packages are described in the WBS dictionary (choice C). NOTE: Do not think of the WBS dictionary as a dictionary of terms.

A project manager has just been assigned to a new project and has been given the project charter.
The FIRST thing the project manager must do is:
A. Create a project scope statement.
B. Confirm that all the stakeholders have had input into the scope.
C. Analyze project risk.
D. Begin work on a project management plan.

Answer B
Explanation This question can be tricky, especially if you have spent so much time studying that
you have forgotten some good project management practices. A quick look at Rita's Process Chart in this book might draw you to conclude that the FIRST thing would be to start planning. Wouldn't it be smart to make sure what you have in the project charter is clear and complete before moving on? This is why choice B is the best choice.

The construction phase of a new software product is near completion. The next phases are testing and implementation. The project is two weeks ahead of schedule. What should the project manager be MOST concerned with before moving on to the final phase?
A. Verify Scope
B. Control Quality
C. Create Performance Reports
D. Control Costs

Answer A
Explanation The Verify Scope process deals with acceptance by the customer. Without this acceptance, you will not be able to move into the next project phase.

You are managing a six-month project and have held biweekly meetings with your project stakeholders. After five-and-a-half months of work, the project is on schedule and budget, but the stakeholders are not satisfied with the deliverables. This situation will delay the project completion by one month. The MOST important process that could have prevented this situation is:
A. Monitor and Control Risks.
B. Control Schedule.
C. Define Scope.
D. Control Scope.

Answer C
Explanation Choices A, B, and D are processes in the monitoring and controlling process group. This situation asks how to prevent the problem. This would have been done during the planning processes. The project deliverables are defined in the Define Scope process (choice C), which is a part of project planning. Good planning reduces the likelihood of a situation like the one described by including the right people and spending adequate time in clarifying the project scope.

All of the following are parts of the scope baseline EXCEPT the:
A. Scope management plan.
B. Project scope statement.
C. Work breakdown structure.
D. WBS dictionary.

Answer A
Explanation The scope management plan is not part of the scope baseline.

One of the stakeholders on the project contacts the project manager to discuss some additional scope they would like to add to the project. The project manager asks for details in writing and then works through the Control Scope process. What should the project manager do NEXT when the evaluation of the requested scope is complete?
A. Ask the stakeholder if there are any more changes expected.
B. Complete integrated change control.
C. Make sure the impact of the change is understood by the stakeholder.
D. Find out the root cause of why the scope was not discovered during project planning.

Answer B
Explanation Notice that there are many things that the project manager could do listed in the choices. The question asks what is the BEST thing to do NEXT. Though they are great things to do, choices A, C, and D are not next. Management of the change is not complete when the Control Scope process is completed. It is important to look at the impact of the change on other parts of the project such as time and cost. Therefore, choice B is the best thing to do next, probably followed by C and then D and A.

During the completion of project work, the sponsor asks the project manager to report on how the project is going. In order to prepare the report, the project manager asks all the team members what percent complete their work is. There is one team member who has been hard to manage from the beginning. In response to being asked what percent complete he is, the team member asks, Percent complete of what? Being tired of such comments, the project manager reports to the team member's boss that the team member is not cooperating. Which of the following is MOST likely the real problem?
A. The project manager did not get buy-in from the manager for the resources on the project.
B. The project manager did not create an adequate reward system for team members to improve their cooperation.
C. The project manager should have had a meeting with the team member's boss the first time the team member caused trouble.
D. The project manager does not have work packages.

Answer D
Explanation Is this a hard question? The whole discussion of the team member and his actions is a distracter. The real problem is not that the team member is being uncooperative. He is asking a question that many team members want to ask in the real world. How can I tell you how things are going if I do not know what work I am being asked to do? The real problem is the lack of a WBS and work packages; otherwise the team member would not have to ask such a question. Choice A cannot be the answer because the project manager is not losing resources (what is implied by getting the manager's buy-in). Though a reward system (choice B) would help with cooperation, the real problem here is not cooperation. Choice C cannot be the answer because it does not solve the problem at hand (the team member not knowing what he is to do). It solves another problem. If you chose C, be very careful! You can get 10 to 20 questions wrong on the exam simply because you do not see the real problem!

The preparation of the scope baseline can BEST be described as involving:
A. The functional managers.
B. The project team.
C. All the stakeholders.
D. The project expediter.

Answer B
Explanation After the customer's input, the performing organization's project team is responsible for scope baseline preparation. The scope baseline includes the WBS, WBS dictionary, and project scope statement.

Which of the following is an output of the Collect Requirements process?
A. Requirements traceability matrix
B. Project scope statement
C. Work breakdown structure
D. Change requests

Answer A
Explanation The project scope statement (choice B) is an output of the Define Scope process. The work breakdown structure (choice C) is an output of the Create WBS process. Change requests (choice D) are an output of the Verify Scope and Control Scope processes.

A scope change has been suggested by one of the stakeholders on the project. After careful consideration and a lot of arguing, the change control board has decided to reject the change. What should the project manager do?
A. Support the stakeholder by asking the board for the reason for the rejection.
B. Suggest to the stakeholder that the next change they request will be approved. C. Record the change request and its result.
D. Advise the change control board to make sure they create approval processes before the next change is proposed.

Answer C
Explanation One could do choice A, but there is no reason to think that the board's rejection would not contain an explanation already, since providing that information is commonly done. Suggesting a change process that circumvents the change control board's authority (choice B) is not ethical. There is no reason to think that approval processes are not already in place (choice D). A rejected change should be recorded for historical purposes, in case the idea is resurrected later, and for other reasons.

A project manager's scope management efforts are being audited. The cost performance index (CPI) on the project is 1.13, and the benefit cost ratio (BCR) is 1.2. The project scope was created by the team and stakeholders. Requirements on the project have been changing throughout the project.
No matter what the project manager has tried to accomplish in managing the project, which of the following is he MOST likely to face in the future?
A. Having to cut costs on the project and increase benefits
B. Making sure the customer approved the project scope
C. Not being able to measure completion of the product of the project
D. Having to add resources to the project

Answer C
Explanation There are many pieces of data in this question that are distracters from the real issue. Though it is common to have to cut costs (choice A) and add resources to a project (choice D), nothing in the question should lead you to think these will be required in this situation. Customers do not generally approve the project scope (what you are going to do to complete their requirements); instead, they approve the product scope (their requirements), so choice B cannot be best. Since the requirements are a measure of the completion of the product of the project (choice C), not having completed requirements makes such measurement impossible. This is why choice C is the best choice.

Verify Scope is closely related to:
A. Perform Quality Control.
B. Sequence Activities.
C. Perform Quality Assurance.
D. Time Management.

Answer A
Explanation Perform Quality Control checks for correctness, and Verify Scope checks for acceptance.

Which of the following can create the MOST misinterpretation in the project scope statement?
A. Imprecise language
B. Poor pattern, structure, and chronological order
C. Small variation in size of work packages or detail of work
D. Too much detail

Answer A
Explanation Much of the work on the project is dictated by the project scope statement. Any imprecision in such a key document will lead to differing interpretations.

Which of the following is CORRECT in regard to the Control Scope process?
A. Effective scope definition can lead to a more complete project scope statement.
B. The Control Scope process must be done before scope planning.
C. The Scope Control process must be integrated with other control processes.
D. Controlling the schedule is the most effective way of controlling scope.

Answer C
Explanation Though it is a correct statement, choice A cannot be the answer because it does not
deal with control. Since scope planning occurs before the Control Scope process, choice B cannot be the answer. Since controlling the schedule is not the best way to control scope, choice D is not the best answer. The control processes do not act in isolation. A change to one will most likely affect the others. Therefore, choice C is the best answer.

Which of the following BEST describes the Verify Scope process?
A. It provides assurances that the deliverable meets the specifications, is an input to the project management plan, and is an output of Perform Quality Control.
B. It ensures that the deliverable is completed on time, ensures customer acceptance, and shows that the deliverable meets specifications.
C. It ensures customer acceptance, shows that the deliverable meets specifications, and provides a chance for differences of opinion to come to light.
D. It is an output of Perform Quality Control, occurs before Define Scope, and ensures customer
acceptance.

Answer C
Explanation Since the project management plan is completed before the Verify Scope process, choice A cannot be best. Since Verify Scope does not deal with time, but rather acceptance, choice B cannot be best. Since the Verify Scope process does not occur before the Define Scope process, choice D cannot be best. Only the statements in choice C are completely correct, making that the best answer.

Which of the following BEST describes product analysis?
A. Working with the customer to determine the product description
B. Mathematically analyzing the quality desired for the project
C. Gaining a better understanding of the product of the project in order to create the project scope statement
D. Determining if the quality standard on the project can be met

Answer C
Explanation Since you need to have a product description before you can do product analysis, choice A cannot be best. Choice B is related to Plan Quality. Choice D is Perform Quality Assurance.
Time Management CHAPTER SIX

To control the schedule, a project manager is reanalyzing the project to predict project duration. She does this by analyzing the sequence of activities with the least amount of scheduling flexibility. What technique is she using?
A. Critical path method
B. Flowchart
C. Precedence diagramming
D. Work breakdown structure

Answer A
Explanation There are only two choices related to scheduling: A and C. Choice C, however, is a diagramming technique that deals with the relationship between activities, not schedule flexibility.

A dependency requiring that design be completed before manufacturing can start is an example of a:
A. Discretionary dependency.
B. External dependency.
C. Mandatory dependency.
D. Scope dependency.

Answer C
Explanation Since the dependency is required, it could not be discretionary (choice A) and therefore must be mandatory. No mention is made that the dependency comes from a source outside the project, so external (choice B) is not correct. Scope dependency (choice D) is not a defined term. The key word in this question is requires:' The question defines a mandatory dependency.

Which of the following are GENERALLY illustrated BETTER by bar charts than network diagrams?
A. Logical relationships
B. Critical paths
C. Resource trade-offs
D. Progress or status

Answer D
Explanation The bar chart (or Gantt chart) is designed to show a relationship to time. This is best used when demonstrating progress or status as a factor of time.

If the optimistic estimate for an activity is 12 days, and the pessimistic estimate is 18 days, what is the standard deviation of this activity?
A. 1
B. 1.3
C. 6
D. 3

Answer A
Explanation The standard deviation is computed by (P - 0)/6. Therefore, the answer is (18 - 12)/6 = 6/6 = 1.

A heuristic is BEST described as a:
A. Control tool.
B. Scheduling method.
C. Planning tool.
D. Rule of thumb.

Answer D
Explanation A heuristic is a rule of thumb. Examples are cost per line of code, cost per square foot of floor space, etc.

Lag means:
A. The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project finish date.
B. The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of its successor.
C. Waiting time.
D. The product of a forward and backward pass.

Answer C
Explanation Total float and free float (choices A and B) are the time an activity can be delayed without impacting the entire project or the next activity. Critical path method (choice D) is a network analysis technique, not waiting time. Choice C is the correct answer.

Which of the following is the BEST project management tool to use to determine the longest time the project will take?
A. WBS
B. Network diagram
C. Bar chart
D. Project charter

Answer B
Explanation The bar chart (choice C) may show an end date, but it is not used to determine dates and show progress. The project charter (choice D) may include any required end dates, but not a logical determination of how long the project will take. The network diagram (choice B) takes the work packages from the work breakdown structure (choice A) and adds dependencies. The dependencies allow us to look at the various paths through the diagram. The longest duration path is the critical path. Choice B is the best answer.

Which of the following is CORRECT?
A. The critical path helps prove how long the project will take.
B. There can be only one critical path.
C. The network diagram will change every time the end date changes.
D. A project can never have negative float.

Answer A
Explanation This question tests your knowledge about a number of topics. There can often be more than one critical path (choice B) but you might adjust to decrease risk and have only one critical
path. Choice C uses the word will. The network diagram may change or it may not, depending on
the amount of schedule reserve and the reason for the change to the schedule. You can have negative float (choice D) if you are behind schedule. Only choice A is correct.

What is the duration of a milestone?
A. Shorter than the duration of the longest activity
B. Shorter than the activity it represents
C. There is no duration
D. Same length as the activity it represents

Answer C
Explanation A milestone shows the completion of a series of activities or work packages. Therefore, it takes no time of its own. With this in mind, choice C is the best answer.

Which of the following BEST describes the relationship between standard deviation and risk?
A. Nothing
B. Standard deviation tells you if the estimate is accurate.
C. Standard deviation tells you how unsure the estimate is.
D. Standard deviation tells you if the estimate includes a pad.

Answer C
Explanation Choice A is not best, as the standard deviation tells you the amount of uncertainty or risk involved in the estimate for the activity. An estimate can have a wide range (choice B) and still be accurate if the item estimated includes risks. Choice D cannot be the best answer since there is no such thing as a pad in proper project management. An estimate might be inflated, but it is because of risks, not padding.

The float of an activity is determined by:
A. Performing a Monte Carlo analysis.
B. Determining the waiting time between activities.
C. Determining lag.
D. Determining the amount of time the activity can be delayed before it delays the critical path.

Answer D
Explanation This question does not specify what type of float. Total float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without impacting the end date of the project. Free float is the amount of
time an activity can be delayed without impacting the early start of the next activity. The only choice matching either of these definitions is choice D.

A project has three critical paths. Which of the following BEST describes how this affects the project?
A. It makes it easier to manage.
B. It increases the project risk.
C. It requires more people.
D. It makes it more expensive.

Answer B
Explanation Though having three critical paths COULD require more people (choice C) or cost more (choice D), the answer that is definitely and always true is choice B. Because you need to manage three critical paths, there is more risk that something could happen to delay the project.

If project time and cost are not as important as the number of resources used each month, which of the following is the BEST thing to do?
A. Perform a Monte Carlo analysis.
B. Fast track the project.
C. Perform resource leveling.
D. Analyze the life cycle costs.

Answer C
Explanation Fast tracking (choice B) would affect time and cost. Monte Carlo analysis and life cycle costs (choices A and D) do not directly deal with resources. Leveling (choice C) is the only choice
that will definitely affect resources.

When would a milestone chart be used instead of a bar chart?
A. Project planning
B. Reporting to team members
C. Reporting to management
D. Risk analysis

Answer C
Explanation Project planning (choice A) would use both types of charts. Team members (choice B) need to see details and so they need a bar chart rather than a milestone chart. Risk analysis (choice D) COULD make use of both charts. A milestone chart is used instead of a bar chart for any situation where you want to report in a less detailed way (choice C). Bar charts can scare people with their complexity and often show too much detail to be worthwhile on a management level. Milestone charts are more effective for reporting to management.

Your project management plan results in a project schedule that is too long. If the project network diagram cannot change but you have extra personnel resources, what is the BEST thing to do?
A. Fast track the project.
B. Level the resources.
C. Crash the project.
D. Monte Carlo analysis.

Answer C
Explanation Leveling resources (choice B) generally extends the schedule. Monte Carlo analysis (choice D) does not directly address the constraints of this situation. To compress the schedule, you could either crash or fast track. However, the situation says that the network diagram cannot change. This eliminates the fast tracking option (choice A), leaving choice C as the best answer.

Which of the following is the BEST thing to do to try to complete a project two days earlier?
A. Tell senior management that the project's critical path does not allow the project to be finished earlier.
B. Tell your boss.
C. Meet with the team and look for options for crashing or fast tracking the critical path.
D. Work hard and see what the project status is next month.

Answer C
Explanation This is another question that asks about problem solving. Only choice C relates to evaluate:' Choices B and D do not try to solve the real problem. Choice A is just an untrue statement.

In attempting to complete the project faster, the project manager looks at the cost associated with crashing each activity. The BEST approach to crashing would also include looking at the:
A. Risk impact of crashing each activity.
B. Customer's opinion of which activities to crash.
C. Boss's opinion of which activities to crash and in which order.
D. Project life cycle phase in which the activity is due to occur.

Answer A
Explanation You mayor may not need your customer's (choice B) or your boss's (choice C) input, but you will definitely need to include an analysis of risk. Choice A is broader than choice D and therefore is better.

Which of the following processes includes asking team members about the time estimates for their activities and reaching agreement on the calendar date for each activity?
A. Sequence Activities
B. Develop Schedule
C. Define Scope
D. Develop Project Charter

Answer B
Explanation By the time this process is taking place, Sequence Activities (choice A), Define Scope (choice C), and Develop Project Charter (choice D) would be completed.

A project manager is in the middle of the executing process of a very large construction project when he discovers that the time needed to complete the project is longer than the time available. What is the BEST thing to do?
A. Cut product scope.
B. Meet with management and tell them that the required date cannot be met.
C. Work overtime.
D. Determine options for schedule compression and present management with his recommended option.

Answer D
Explanation This question tests whether you know how to solve problems, especially if you are one of those project managers who has not realized that an unrealistic schedule is something you should deal with before beginning work. Since cutting product scope affects the customer, choice A has a great negative effect and is therefore not best. A project manager's job is to determine options for meeting any end date or time, therefore choice B cannot be correct. Working overtime (choice C) is expensive and unnecessary when there are so many other choices that could be selected first. Choice D could have the least negative effect on the project.

During project planning, you estimate the time needed for each activity and then add the estimates to create the project estimate. You commit to completing the project by this date. What is wrong with this scenario?
A. The team did not create the estimate, and estimating takes too long using that method.
B. The team did not create the estimate, and a network diagram was not used.
C. The estimate is too long and should be created by management.
D. The project estimate should be the same as the customer's required completion date.

Answer B
Explanation Time estimates for the activities should be created by the team and should not be added. Some activities may take place concurrently. Therefore, choice B must be the correct answer.

You are a project manager on a US $5,000,000 software development project. While working with your project team to develop a network diagram, you notice a series of activities that can be worked in parallel but must finish in a specific sequence. What type of activity sequencing method is required for these activities?
A. Precedence diagramming method
B. Arrow diagramming method
C. Critical path method
D. Operational diagramming method

Answer A
Explanation The question implies a finish-to-finish relationship between activities. The arrow diagramming method (choice B) does not support these types of relationships. Choice C is not a diagramming method, and choice D is a made-up term.

You are a project manager on a US $5,000,000 software development project. While working with your project team to develop a network diagram, your data architects suggest that quality could be improved if the data model is approved by senior management before moving on to other design elements. They support this suggestion with an article from a leading software development journal. Which of the following BEST describes what this type of input is called?
A. Mandatory dependency
B. Discretionary dependency
C. External dependency
D. Heuristic

Answer B
Explanation The situation is neither mandatory (choice A), nor driven by an external source (choice C). A rule of thumb (choice D) is something that can be used consistently. This situation is a unique occurrence. The situation is a suggestion of a preferred method, so choice B is the best answer.

Based on the following, if you needed to shorten the duration of the project, what activity would you try to shorten?
Activity / Preceding Activity / Duration In Weeks
Start ....... None ........ 0
A ............. Start ........ 1
B ............. Start ......... 2
C ............. Start ......... 6
D ............. A ............. 10
E ............. B,C ........... 1
F ............. C .............. 2
G ............ D .............. 3
H ............ E .............. 9
I ............. F .............. 1
End ........ G,H,I ......... 0
A. Activity B
B. Activity D
C. Activity H
D. Activity C

Answer D
Explanation This is one of the two-stage questions you will find on the exam. First you need to draw the network diagram and find the critical path, and then make a decision. The network diagram would be:
Paths Duration in Weeks
Start, A, D, G, End 14
Start, B, E, H, End 12
Start, C, E, H, End 16
Start, C, F, I, End 9
Many people immediately look for the longest duration activity on the project to cut. Here activity D is the longest, at 10 weeks. However, that activity is not on the critical path, and cutting it would not shorten the project's duration. You must change the critical path. In this case, both activity C and activity H are on the critical path. If you have a choice, all things being equal, choose the earlier option. Therefore, activity C (choice D) is the best answer.

You have a project with the following activities: Activity A takes 40 hours and can start after the project starts. Activity B takes 25 hours and should happen after the project starts. Activity C must happen after activity A and takes 35 hours. Activity D must happen after activities Band C and takes 30 hours. Activity E must take place after activity C and takes 10 hours. Activity F takes place after Activity E and takes 22 hours. Activities F and D are the last activities of the project. Which of the following is TRUE if activity B actually takes 37 hours?
A. The critical path is 67 hours.
B. The critical path changes to Start, B, D, End.
C. The critical path is Start, A, C, E, F, End.
D. The critical path increases by 12 hours.

Answer C
Explanation Did you notice how difficult this question was to read? Such wording is intentional, to prepare you for interpreting questions on the real exam. Looking at this situation, you see that there are three paths through the network. They are Start, A, C, E, F, End with a duration of 40 + 35 + 10 + 22 = 107; Start, A, C, D, End with a duration of 40 + 35 + 30 = 105; and Start, B, D, End with a duration of 25 + 30 = 55. If the duration of activity B changes from 25 to 37, the activity will take 12 hours longer. As the activity is only on the third path, it will only change the duration of that path from 55 to 55 + 12 = 67 hours. Since the duration of the critical path is 107 hours, the delay with activity B will have no impact on the project timeline or the current critical path.

A project manager has received activity duration estimates from his team. Which of the following does he need in order to complete the Develop Schedule process?
A. Change requests
B. Schedule change control system
C. Recommended corrective actions
D. Reserves

Answer D
Explanation Develop Schedule includes all work and uses all inputs needed to come up with a finalized, realistic schedule. One would need time reserves (choice D) in order to complete a schedule. All of the other items are parts of Control Schedule and occur after Develop Schedule.

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