Art History Exam 2 terms

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Foreshortening

The representation of forms on a two-dimensional surface by presenting the length in such a way that the long axis appears to recede away from the viewer. A form of perspective where the nearest parts of an object or form are enlarged so that the rest of the form appears to go back in space.

Relief Print

Relief printing uses the principle of a stamp in that the artist cuts away from a block what is not needed in the design. The raised surface of the block takes the ink and prints directly onto receiving surface, usually paper.

Woodcut

A block of wood on whose surface a design for printing is engraved along the grain. A print made from a woodcut. Also woodblock, woodprint. A wood cut is a relief print.

Intaglio

The image to be printed is recessed into the surface of the printing plate and the recessed areas are filled with ink. The incised image may be etched, engraved the chemicals or tools. The incisions are filled with ink, and excess ink wiped from the plates. Heavy pressure is applied to transfer the ink from the plates to the paper.

Engraving

An engraving is an Intaglio print. Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, bu cutting grooves into it. The result may be decorative object in itself, as when silver or gold are engraved, or in art may provide an intaglio printing plate in printmaking, of copper or another metal.

Etching

Etching is a type of Intaglio print. In pure etching, a metal plate is covered with a waxy group which is resistant to acid. The artist then scratched off the ground with a pointed etching needle where he wants a line to appear in the finished piece, so exposing the bare metal. The plate is then dipped in a bath of acid. The acid "bites" into the metal, where it is exposed, leaving behind lines suck into the plate. The remaining ground is then cleaned off the plate. The plate is inked all over, and then the ink wiped off the surface, leaving only the ink in the etch lines. The plate is then put through a high-pressure printing press together with a sheet of paper (often moistened to soften it). The paper picks up the ink from the etched lines, making a print. The process can be repeated many times, typically several hundred impressions (copies) could be printed before the plate shows too much sign of wear.

Linear Perspective

allows artists to determine mathematically the relative size of objects with their visual recession in space. Objects are oriented toward a vanishing point located on a horizontal line.

Atmospheric Perspective

Also called Aerial Perspective, a device used by painters to suggest atmosphere between the viewer and distant objects by 1)gradually blurring the outlines of objects closer to the horizon and 2) gradually shading the color of objects closer to the horizon in a hazy shade of blue.

Renaissance

The Renaissance was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. It marks the transitional period between the end of the Middle Ages and the start of the Modern Age. The Renaissance is usually considered to have begun in the 14th century in Italy and the 16th Century in northern Europe. It is also known as "Rinascimento" (in Italian)

Reformation

The Protestant Reformation was a movement which emerged in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. The main front of reformation was started by Martin Luther and his 95 Theses. The reformation ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. It also led to the Counter-Reformation with the Roman Catholic Churches

Counter-Reformation

The movement initiated by the Catholic Church to contain the Protestant Reformation and, if possible, end it. During the Council of Trent (1545-1563) certain rules were established to counteract Protestantism. One major tool was the Inquisition

Mannerism

A style that developed in the 16th century as a creation to the classical rationality and balanced harmony of the High Renaissance, characterized by the dramatic use of space and light, exaggerated color, elongated of figures, and distortions of perspective, scale, and proportions. Main subject is the human body. Figures are often exaggerated, elegant, shown in complex arrangements and twisted poses. There is a sense of instability which mirrors the unstable times contemporaries encountered during the Counter-Reformation. The style appears crowded, many artists used jarring colors. The classical proportions are rejected. Sometimes art works are hard to decipher and show a complex iconography.

The Golden Ratio

The Golden Ration which is usually denoted ('phi') is the mathematical constant that expresses the relationship that the sun of two quantities is to the larger quantity as the larger is to the smaller.

Sfumato

Is a term coined by Leonardo da Vinci to refer to a painting technique which overlays translucent layers of color to create perceptions of depth, volume and form. In particular, it refers to the blending of colors or tones, so subtly that there is no perceptible transition.

Disegno

Is the outdrawing that the artist had in mind before beginning to create his work. The concept of disegno is related to the inspiration of the artist and his imagination. Disegno can be seen as a blueprint of an idea, the building block of a work or art, a machine, a building or anything created by man. Especially the artists in Florence believed in mapping out ideas on paper before proceeding with the artistic process. This concept entails the knowledge of how things work and is usually based on scientific research.

Colorito

In Venice it means "coloring". It was deemed the fundamental building block of conceiving painted images. Through a process of layering and blinding colors Venetian artists achieved a glowing richness. These artists used very few preparatory drawings for their artworks and lived out their fantasies through the medium of color and the painting process on the canvas directly. Their main focus was on the depiction of textural values and materials, as well as moods, emotions, and movements. During the 16th Century a heated debate between the two positions (disegno vs colorito) involved theorists as well as artists, regional rivalries and aethetic concerns.

Anamorphic Art

An image that appears distorted, because it is constructed on an elongated grid, rendering it unintelligible until it is viewed from a specific, extremely oblique point of view or reflected in a curved mirror, or with some other optical device.

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