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cartilaginous

typically allows a slight degree of movement

cartilaginous

includes joints between the vertebral bodies and the pubic symphysis

fibrous

essentially immovable joints

fibrous

sutures are the most remembered examples

cartilaginous

characterized by cartilage connecting the bony portions

synovial

all characterized by a fibrous articular capsule lined with a synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity

synovial

all are freely movable or diarthrotic

fibrous

bone regions are united by fibrous connective tissue

synovial

include the hip, knee, and elbow joints

ligament

dense fibrous connective tissue, attaches bones together, reinforces joints

tendon

dense fibrous connective tissue attaching tendon to bone, reinforces the joint capsule as it spans a joint

articular cartilage

hyaline cartilage, reduces friction where bones articulate

synovial membrane

loose connective tissue, produces synovial fluid which decreases friction within the joint capsule

bursa

fluid-filled synovial sac which cushions the tendon where it crosses the bone

pivot

joint between the axis and atlas

ball and socket

hip joint

gliding

intervertebral joints( between articular processes)

condyloid

joint between forearm bones and wrist

hinge

elbow and interphalangeal joints

gliding

intercarpal joints

hinge

joint between tarsus and tibia/fibula

condyloid

joint between skull and vertebral column

hinge

joint between jaw and skull

condyloid

joints between proximal phalanges and metacarpal bones

ball and socket

a multiaxial joint

condyloid or saddle

biaxial joints

hinge or pivot

uniaxial joints

one joint

uniaxial

two joints

biaxial

three joints

multiaxial

what characteristics do all joints have in common?

all consist of bony regions separated by fibrous or cartilaginous connective tissue

which joint, the hip or knee is more stable

hip

name 2 important factors that contribute to stability of hip joint

deep socket for femur
strongly reinforced articular capsule

name 2 important factors that contribute to stability of knee

menisci
ligaments and tendons crossing joint

factors which contribute to large range of motion of shoulder

-large head of humerus moves easily against shallow glenoid cavity of scapula
-glenoid labrum only slightly deepens glenoid cavity
-articular capsule is thin and loose
-few ligaments that strengthen joint

which direction does shoulder dislocate?

humerus usually dislocates in forward and downward direction

what structural joint changes are common to elderly?

degenerative changes

sprain

ligaments reinforcing a joint are damaged by excessive stretching, or torn away from bony attachment

dislocation

bones are forced out of their normal positions in a joint cavity

what types of tissue damage might you expect in a dislocated joint?

torn or stressed ligaments and inflammation
joint capsule and ligaments remain stretched

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