Embryophytes- the land plants

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traits of embryophtes

-alertnation of heteromorphic generations
-multicellular gametangia
-multicellular sporangia
-matrotophic embryo
-sporopollenin

sporopollenin

-tough, decay resistant coat that surrounds land plant spores

sporopollenin function

-protection from dessication
-protection from disease

groups of land plants

-bryophytes
-tracheophytes

bryophytes

-small embryophytes that lack vascular tissue, have a dominant gametophyte generation

bryophytes classified into three divisions

-anthocerotophyta
-hepatophta
-bryophta

gametophyte body forms

-thallus=flattened disc or ribbon
-"stem-leaf" structure
-rhizoids anchor gametophte

sporophyte structures

-foot=embedded in gametophte
-seta=stalk
-sporangium=also called capsule in bryophtes

anthocerotophyta

-species diversity (eighth)
-phylogenetic diversity

unique features of anthocerotophyta

-symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria
-sporophte lacking a seta
-sporangium with basal meristem

gametophyte features

-chloroplasts=one per cell
-pyrenoids=starch organizing area
-ancestral features

anthocerophyta-sporophyte

-foot
-seta absent
-basal meristem (continuously produces new spores)

hepatophyta-liverworts

-species diversity (fourth)

hepatophyta unique features

-oil bodies in cytoplasm
-gametanglophores
-gemmae cups
-elaters in capsule

gametophyte differentiation

-complex thallus
-upper surface=pores, air chambers, photosynthetic tissue
-lower surface=rhizoids, anchor the thallus

gametangiophores

-fertile brances bearing gametangia
-two kinds=archegoniophores, antheridophores

gemmae cups

-asexual propagules
-formed in gemmae cups
-splashed out of rain

sporophytes

-located under the surface of archegoniophore
-structure=foot, seta(short), capsule

sporophyte capsule

-filled with spores
-elaters= long skinny, twist in response to humidity to disperse spores

bryophyta

-species division (second)

protonema

-initial gametophyte growth phase
-structure=branching, green and photosynthetic, buds produce adult gametophytes

sphagnum- peat moss

-explosive dehiscence
-leaves with hyaline cells (large dead cells, barrel-shaped, fill with water)

sphagnum and acid

-hyaline cells=released phenols and tannins
-acid slows decompostion of organic material
-forms peat

peat

-plant matter that accumulates under water-logged conditions and does not decompose
-1/3 or all terrestrial carbon locked in peat

peat uses

-wound dressing in WW1
-burned for fuel

dehiscence by peristome, capsule structure

-operculum:capsule lid falls off
-peristome:ring of teeth underneath operculum

perisotme mechanism

-peristome teeth
-move in response to humidity: close capsule when moist, open capsule when dry

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