Chapter 26 The Urinary System (Study Guide)

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glomerular filtration

blood plasma spills out

tubular reabsorption

some items are selectively reabsorbed into the blood

tubular secretion

some blood plasma items are selectively sent out into the tubules

glomerular filtration

the only process of urine that occurs in the renal capsule

glomerular filtration rate

rat at which filtrate collectively accumulates in the Bowman's capsule of each nephron

glomerular filtration rate

125 ml/min (180 liters/day)

glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion

processes that form urine

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

blood pressure in the glomerulus

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

promotes filtration

glomerular osmotic pressure

inhibits filtration

glomerular osmotic pressure

This pressure is created as a result of the movement of water and solutes out of the glomerular capillaries, while protein and blood remain

glomerular osmotic pressure

This decreases the concentration of water in the glomerulus and promotes the return of water to the glomerulus by osmosis

capsular hydrostatic pressure

inhibits filtration

capsular hydrostatic pressure

This pressure develops as water collects in the Bowman's capsule

capsular hydrostatic pressure

The more water in Bowman's capsule, the greater this pressure

glomerular hydrostatic pressure, glomerular osmotic pressure, and capsular hydrostatic pressure

characteristics which enhance filtration by the glomerulus

renal autoregulation, neural regulation, and hormonal control

types of regulation for the GFR

renal autoregulation

the ability of the kidney to maintain a constant GFR even when the body's blood pressure fluctuates

renal autoregulation

this is accomplished by cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatus that decrease or increase secretion of a vasoconstrictor substance that dilates or constricts, respectively, the afferent arteriole.

neural regulation

occurs when vasoconstrictor fibers of the sympathetic nervous system constrict afferent arterioles

neural regulation

this stimulation may occur during exercise, stress, or other fight-or-flight conditions and results in a decrease in urine production

hormonal control

accomplished by the reninangiotensinogen mechanism

reninangiotensinogen mechanism

When cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus detect a decrease in blood pressure in the afferent arteriole or a decrease in solute (Na+ and Cl−) concentrations in the distal tubule, they secrete the enzyme rennin, this occurs during hormonal control.

proximal convoluted tube (PCT):

largest amount of solute and water reabroption from filtered fluid occurs here

65%

PCT reabsorbs ________of the filtered water, Na and K

100%

PCT reabsorbs ________most filtered organic solutes such as glucose and amino acids

50%

of the filtered urea (phosphate)

H+ ions,

PCT secretes a variable amount of

ammonium ions (NH4) and urea

PCT secretes a variable amount of

Na+

most solute reabsorption in the PCT involves

symport and antiport mechanisms

Na+ transport occur where in the PCT

glucose

Na+ glucose symporter transport what via the apical membrane

symporters

glucose, carbon dioxide, chloride, potassium, calcium magnesium, urea and water are transported via the apical membrane how

apical membrane of PCT

where are symporter located that transport nutrients

synports and antiport mechanisms

how do Na+ ions transport

osmosis of water

solute reabsorption in proximal convoluted tubules promotes

osmotic gradient

reabsorbtion of the solutes creates an

reabsorbtion of water via osmosis

osmotic grandient caused by reabsorption of solutes promotes

isotonic

at end of PCT tubular fluid is__________ to blood.

glucose

reabsorption through PCT is100%

carbon dioxide

reabsorption through PCT is 80-90%

chloride

reabsorption through PCT is 50%

potassium

reabsorption through PCT is 65%

calcium

reabsorption through PCT varies

magnesium

reabsorption through PCT is varies

urea

reabsorption through PCT is 50%

water

reabsorption through PCT is 65%

glucose

reabsorbs throught PCT via facilitated diffusion

carbon dioxide

reabsorbs throught PCT via facilitated diffusion

chloride

reabsorbs throught PCT via diffusion

potassium

reabsorbs throught PCT via diffusion

calcium

reabsorbs throught PCT via diffusion

magnesium

reabsorbs throught PCT via diffusion

urea

reabsorbs throught PCT via diffusion

water

reabsorbs throught PCT via osmosis

antiporters

hydrogen ions are secreted by the apical membrane of the PCT how

20-30%

reabsorption by the apical membrane of cells of the ascending limb of loop of Henle for sodium is

35%

reabsorption by the apical membrane of cells of the ascending limb of loop of Henle for chloride is

20-30%

reabsorption by the apical membrane of cells of the ascending limb of loop of Henle for potassium is

water

reabsorbtion occurs in descending limb of loop of Henle

osmosis

water is reabsorbed in loop of Henle via

symporters in ascending limb

sodium is reabsorbed in loop of Henle via

symporters in ascending limb

chloride is reabsorbed in loop of Henle via

symporters in ascending limb

potassium is reabsorbed in loop of Henle via

sodium potassium pump and sodium channels stimulated by aldosterone

how is sodium reabsorbed by the principal cells in the last part of the DCT and collecting duct

1-4%

sodium reabsorption in DCTand collecting ducts

leakage channels

K+ reabsorbtion by principal cells in the last part of the DCT and collecting duct occurs where

5-9%

water resorption in DCTand collecting ducts

angiotensin II

triggered by low blood volume or low blood pressure

angiotensin II

stimulates activity of Na+ / H+ antiporters in proximal tubule cells

angiotensin II

increases reabsorption of Na+ other solutes, and water which increases blood volume

aldosterone

triggered by increased angiotensisin II level and increased level of plasma K+ promote release of aldosterone by adrenal cortex

aldosterone

stimulates activity of sodium-potassium pumps in basolateral membrane and Na+ channels in apical membrane of principal cells in collecting duct

aldosterone

increases secretion of K+ and reabsorption of Na+, Cl-; increases reabsorption of water, which increase blood volume

blood volume

aldosterone increase secretion of K+ and reabsorption of Na+, Cl, increases reabsorption of water which increase

ADH

triggered by increased osmolarity of extracellular fluid or decreased blood volume, promotes release of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland

ADH

stimulates insertion of water channel proteins (aquaporin-2) into the apical membranes of principal cells

ADH

increases facultative reabsorption of water, which decreases osmolarity of body fluids.

ANP

triggered by stretching of atria of heart stimulates secretion of ANP

ANP

suppresses reabsorption of Na+ and water in proximal tubule and collecting duct; also inhibits secretion of aldosterone and ADH

ANP

increases excretion of Na+ in urine (natriuresis); increases urine output (dieresis) and thus decreases blood volume

dieresis

decrease of urine output

natriuresis

increase of urine output

parathyroid hormone

triggers decreased level of plasma calcium promotes release of PTH from parathyroid glands

parathyroid hormone

stimulates opening of calcium channels in apical membranes of early distal tubule cells

parathyroid hormone

increases reabsorption of calcium

ADH

control whether dilute urine or concentrated urine is formed

dilute

in the absence of ADH urine is very

reabsortion

high level of ADH stimulates __________ of more water into blood producing a concentrated urine

concentrated

high level of ADH in urine

increases

when dilute urine is being formed the osmolarity of the fluid in the tubular lumen

decreases

as dilute urineflows down the descending limb of the loop of Henle the osmolarity

decreases

as dilute urine flows up the ascending limb the osmolarity _______even more as it flows through the rest of the nephron and collecting duct.

concentrated urine

when water intake is low or water loss is high such as heavy sweating, the kidneys musct conserve eater while still eliminating wate and excess ions this will produce

ADH

the kidneys produce a small volume of highly concentrated urine under the influence of this

300mOsm/liter

osmolarity of flomerular filtrate

urine

this can be four times more concetrated than blood plasma or glomerular filtrate

osmotic gradient of solutes in the interstitial fluid of the renal medulla

the ability of ADH to cause excretion of concentrated urine depends on the presence of

sodium, chloride, and urea

the three major solutes that contribute to high osmolarity in the renal medulla are

building and maintaing osmotic gradient

difference in solute and water permeability and reabsorption in different sections of the long loops of Henle and colllecing ducts are responsible for

building and maintaing osmotic gradient

the countercurrent flow of fluid through tube-shaped structures in renal medulla are responsible for

countercurrent flow

refers to the flow of fluid in opposite directions

concurrent flow

the flow of tubular fluid throguh the descending and ascending limbs of the loop of Henle and the flow of blood through the ascending and descending parts of the vasa recta are and example of

multiplication and exchange

two types of countercurrent mechanism exist in the kidneys name them

kidneys

multiplication countercurrent mechanism is located where

kidneys

exchange countercurrent mechanism is located where

BUN

test that measures the blood nitrogen that is part of the urea resulting from catabolism and deamination of amino acids.

rise steeply

when glomerular filtration rate decreases severly as may occur with renal disease for obstructionof the urinary tract Bun may

minimize protein intake

one way to treat paitens with a high BUN result is to

poor renal function

a creatinine level above 1.5 mb/dL is an indication

renal plasma clearance

the volume of blood that is cleaned or cleared of a substnce per unit of time

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