histology of nervous tissue

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major function of neuron

generate and transmit nerve impulses

neuron

basic functional unit of nervous system

4 types of neuroglia in the CNS

microglia, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells

microglia function

phagocytosis of debris ( dead cells, bacteria, etc)

oligodendrocytes function

myelinate neuron processes in the CNS thus forming myelin sheath

astrocytes function

support the neurons, may serve nutritive function and help regulate the chemical environment of neurons

ependymal cells function

line cavities of brain and spinal cord, aid in circulation of cerebrospinal fluid

PNS glial cell that forms myelin

schwann cell

PNS glial cell that surrounds neuron cell bodies in ganglia

satellite cell

central nervous system

braina and spinal cord collectively

neuroglia

specialized supporting cells in CNS

synapse

junction or point of close contact between neurons

tract

a bundle of nerve processes inside the CNS

association neuron

neuron serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory and motor neurons

peripheral nervous system

ganglia and spinal and cranial nerves

ganglion

collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS

efferent neuron

neuron that conducts impulses away from the CNS to muscles and glands

afferent neuron

neuron that conducts impulses toward the CNS from the body periphery

neurotransmitters

chemicals released by neurons that stimulate or inhibit other neurons or effectors

axon hillock

region of the cell body from which the axon originates

axon terminal

secretes neurotransmitters

dendrite

receptive region fo a neuron

myelin sheath

insulates the nerve fibers

neuroanal cell body

site of the nucleus and is the most important metabolic area

neurofibril

may be involved in transport of substances within the neuron

nissl bodies

essentially rough endoplasmic reticulum, important metabolically

axon

impulse generator and transmitter

what substance found in synaptic vesicels of axon terminal

neurotransmitter

what role does neuorotransmitters play in neurotransmission

carries electrical impulse from one neuron to the next

what anatomical characteristic determines whether a neuron is unipolar, bipolar, mutipolar

number of processes issuing from cell body

nerve

-bundle of neuron processes wrapped in connective tissue wrappings
-extends from CNS to structures of body viscera or periphery

endoneurium location

surrounds the neuron process

perineum location

surrounds a bundle of neuron processes

epineurium location

surrounds all of the neuron processes contributing to a nerve

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