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Henry the Navigator

Ruler of Portugal -> Starts school for navigation

Vasco de Gama

Rounds Cape of Good Hope and continues onto India for Spices.

Christopher Columbus

sailed west and found West Indies

Vasco Nunez da Balboa

Hacked through Panama to the south sea

Ferdinand Magellan

Finds sea route west through South America
First to circumnavigate.

Cartographer

mapmakers

Astrolabe

determines latitude on the sea

caravel

ship able to sail into the wind, has both triangular and square sails

scurvy

a disease caused by lack of Vitamin C

circumnavigate

sail around the world

Tainos

Native people of the West Indies

Hernan Cortes

Conquers Aztecs (helped by Malinche, translator and advisor

Malinche

Native translator and advisor

Moctezuma

ruler of the Aztecs

Francisco Pizarro

conquered Incans

Atahualpa

Leader of the Incans

conquistador

Spanish conqueror

immunity

resistance

alliance

Help one another fight

civil war

a fight between two (+) groups of the same nation

Council of the Indies

The government of New Spain

Bartolome de las Casas

the spanish priest that condemned encomiendas

New Laws of the Indies

laws that end the mistreatment of Natives

Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz

one of the greatest spanish poets

viceroy

representative of spain

plantation

large estates run by owner/overseer

peninsular

spanish born -> moved to New Spain

encomienda

right to use natives on plantations

peon

workers forced to labor for a landlord in order to pay off debt

creoles

american born descendants of Spanish settlers

mestizo

european + native americans

mulatto

european + african

privateer

a privately owned warship commissioned to prey on the commercial shipping or warships of an enemy nation

Middle Passage

trip from West Africa to Caribbean

Asante

African kingdom on the Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1680. Asante participated in the Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves, and ivory. It resisted British imperial ambitions for a quarter century before being absorbed into Britain. 1902 (736)

Usman dan Fodio

A scholar and preacher of Islam in the early 1800's that denounced the corruption of the local African rulers.

Boer

a Dutch colonist in South Africa

Shaka

A Zulu chief in Southern Africa who used soldiers and good military organization to create a large centralized state.

Great Trek

a migration of Dutch colonists out of British-controlled territory in South Africa during the 1830s

triangular trade

A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa

repeal

To cancel

monopoly

(economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller

Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.

commercial revolution

the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.

"putting-out" system

system of merchant-capitalists "putting out" raw materials to cottage workers for processing and payment that was fully developed in England

inflation

rising prices

capitalism

invest money in order to make a profit

entrepreneur

someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it

joint stock company

allowed people to pool large amounts of capital needed for an overseas voyage

mercantilism

main ideas- export more then import
-wealth is based on gold and silver

tariff

tax on imports

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