Chap 6 intro to speech

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Longitudinal method

a small number of children are predeatedly observed for month or years.

cross sectional method

many subjects are selected from different age levels and are studied simultaneously for arelatively brief duration.

preverbal behavior

thos behaviors that preced the production of words and phrases

syntax

arranging words in proper order to form meaningful sentences.

contexts

the situation on which an utterance is producd usually provides a clue to the meaning

telegraphic speech

speech that does not include reuired grammatical features

free morphemes

can stand alone and convey meaning

grammatical morpheme

most of them cannot convey much meaning when produced in isolation although in context they modulate (change) meaning.

present progressive

ing is a grammatical morpheme,and its isolated productionn make no sense.

bound morpheme

other grammatical mophemes include inflection of english language: adding ed to a word to indicate past tense; adding 's to a word to indicate possesion.

mean length of utterance (MLU)

the average length of a child's multiple utterances; the length is measured in tems of morphemes.both bound and free.

negation

before he or she can produce a completenegative sentence the child negates something by saying a single word: "NO"

function

rouchly the same as purposes or intentions in the linguistic view, and they are nothing other than effects of speech on others.

instrumental function

speech that serves th purpose of gettin various kinds of help from others (ex: i want it)

regulatory function

control other people's behavior (ex: stop it)

turn taking

tur taking implies thathtere is a time to talk and there is a time to listen

topic maintenace

continued conversation on the same topic for socially acceptable durations

later language acquision

language learning in older children, including adolescents

conversations

dialogue though not limited to two individuals

narrations

monoluge

innate

that it is already present when the chil is born

Language acquisition device (LAD)

children are born with an innate mechanism of language aquisiton. LAD integrates the universal and the unique aspects of the language and thus helps the chil learn the language in a relatively short time

cognition

includes knowledge and such mental processes as memory and auitoryand visual perception

cognitive theory

states that lanugae acquistion is made possible by cogniton and general intellectual processes. (according to this view, knowledge comes first and language later)

limited language skils

descrived as a language delay, lanugage disorder, langugage guage impairment, or language problem.

syntax

the arrangement of words into meaningul sentences

syntactic problems

are difficulties in sentence construction, as expressed in grammaticaly inappropriate forms

pragmatic

aspets of language refer to appropriate use of language in social context

pragmatic problem

are those of language use.

physical or social isolation

reduces the human concts that are needd toa cquire language.

socially deprived

children whoare not totally isolated but experience reduced social contact also may show a slowe than normal rate of language acquistion.

language assessments

a process of observation and measurement of a clients language behaviors to determine a)wheter a clinical problem exists; b)the nature and extent of the problem, if it exists; and c)a couse ofaction to help the child and the family

standarized test

frequently administered to determine whetertha child lags behind children of his or her age

expressive langageskills

persons talking (language production)

receptive language skill

persons understandin of what is said ( spoken language)

language sampling

a masure of language vital to a diagnosis of language disorders in children. the procedure of recodin aperson language productions under relatively normal conditions and whenever possible whith the help of conversational speech

prognosis

a statement abotu the likely future course of the disorder when certain steps are take or when nothins is done

generalization

the production ofnew skills in new environments without positive or corrective feed back

maintenance

the sustained production of newly (clinically) established skills over time and across situations

incidental teaching

a procdure in which naturally occurring opportunites for communication are used to teach language

expansions

parents often repeat and elaboraewhat the child says

cognitive or semantic approach

emphasis not on what the chil says but on what the knows, about things and events

stimulus bound

which means that a behavior learned in a particular situation is bound to that situation only. Children with autism ae like to be extremlely stimulus bound

desktop auditory trainers

consist ofan amplifier to which multiple earphones are attached

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