WHAP Chapter 32 Test

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What distinguishes those regions referred to as the "Third World" from other societies?

lack of industrialization

The "Second World" refers to ...?

industrialized communist nations.

Which of the following nations is NOT part of the "First World"?

the Soviet Union

In which of the regions of the world did Latin America belong?

Third World

Which of the following statements concerning change in Latin America in the twentieth century is most accurate?

The region has remained remarkably unchanged, as the old institutions and patterns of politics and economy have adapted to new situations.

Two events set in motion trends that would determine much of Latin America's subsequent history: World War I and ...?

the Mexican Revolution.

At the end of World War I, what nation emerged as the dominant foreign power in Latin America?

the United States

The Mexican Revolution began in ...?

1910.

The man who had been in charge of the Mexican government since 1876 at the time of the Mexican Revolution was

Porfirio Diaz.

What politician first challenged the Mexican government in 1910?

Francisco Madero

Which of the following political and military leaders was NOT involved in the Mexican Revolution in 1910?

Juan Jose Arevalo

What was the primary goal of Zapata's forces within the Mexican Revolution?

sweeping land reform

In 1920 who was elected, bringing the Mexican Revolution to a close?

Alvaro Obregon

The communal holdings created as part of the program of land reform following the Mexican Revolution were called

ejidos.

Which of the following reforms was NOT included in the revolutionary constitution of 1917 in Mexico?

state takeover of property belonging to the Catholic Church

Which of the following was included in the policy of "indigenism" that was incorporated into many of the post-revolutionary reforms in Mexico?

the Mexican muralist movement featuring works of Diego Rivera and Jose Oemente Orozco .

Who were the "Cristeros?"

conservative peasants backed by the Church who fought to stop the slide toward secularism

In 1934, Mexico nationalized its

petroleum industry

Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes the state of Mexican political organization after the revolution?

The revolutionary leadership institutionalized the regime by creating a one-party system under PRI.

The spurt of industrial growth that occurred throughout Latin America when World War I cut off the traditional agricultural exports is called

"import substitution industrialization."

In many Latin American countries, the traditional landowning oligarchy began to open up the political system in order meet the demand of what group to share political power?

middle class

Between 1914 and 1930, Latin America was swept by

strikes and labor unrest in response to economic dislocation.

What was the primary difference between the Liberal governments of Latin America and those of Europe?

Latin American Liberals gained power in conjunction with the traditional oligarchy, and their programs failed to dissolve class boundaries.

What event brought an end to many of the Liberal governments in Latin America?

the Great Depression

Who was the popular reformist president of Mexico who governed between 1934 and 1940?

Lazaro Cardenas

What type of government did Getelio Vargas institute in Brazil between 1929 and 1945?

Vargas introduced a centralized program based on ideas from Mussolini's Italy in 1937 before turning to the left by 1945.

What military leader in Argentina broadened the base of support for the conservative government by appealing to labor groups and by utilizing the popularity of his wife?

Juan D. Peron

What caused the downfall of the first Peronist government in 1955?

the coalition of labor, business, and the military fell apart

What corporation in Guatemala became the centerpiece of the dispute between the United States and reform governments in the Central American country?

United Fruit Company

Which of the following statements concerning the revolution in Guatemala in 1954 is most accurate?

The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency aided conservative dissidents in overthrowing the nationalistic Arbenz government

Who was the leader of the Cuban revolution that overthrew Fulgencio Batista?

Fidel Castro

The Cuban revolution was referred to by the revolutionaries as

the "26th of July Movement."

What Argentine revolutionary assisted in the overthrow of the Cuban government in 1956?

Ernesto "Che" Guevara

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the outcome of the Cuban revolution?

The revolutionary government eventually announced its adoption of Marxist-Leninist leanings, broke off relations with the U.S., and introduced sweeping socialist reforms.

The revolutionary government of Cuba traded economic dependency on the U.S. for

increasing economic dependency on the Soviet Union.

The emergence within the Roman Catholic hierarchy of a combination of theology and socialist principles in an effort to bring about improved conditions for the poor was called

"liberation theology."

Which of the following countries was NOT affected by a military coup during the 1960s and 1970s?

Belize

Which of the following statements concerning military governments in Latin America after 1960 is most accurate?

Political repression and torture were often used to silence critics.

Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the progress of democratization in Latin America during the 1980s?

Despite return to democratic government in many Latin American countries, problems with populist movements, threats from military leaders, inflation, and the drug trade weakened the new regimes.

How many direct US military interventions were there in the Caribbean and Central America before 1933?

over 30

What Nicaraguan politician led an opposition to U.S. occupation until his assassination in 1934?

Augusto Sandino

Conservative governments and dictatorships established in the aftermath of U.S. military intervention in Latin America were referred to as

"Banana Republics."

What U.S. president introduced the "Good Neighbor Policy" that promised to deal more fairly with Latin American countries and to halt direct military intervention?

Franklin Roosevelt

What led to the U.S. return to more aggressive policies including direct military intervention following World War II

the desire to contain communism and the Cold War

Which of the following statements concerning women in Latin American politics and society is most accurate?

Women tended to join the national political parties, where traditional prejudices against women in public life limited their ability to influence programs

Which of the following statements concerning Latin American population is most accurate?

Since 1950, Latin American population has more than doubled, while North American population has grown more slowly.

Which of the following types of population movement was NOT typical of Latin Am in the late twentieth century?

movement of population away from the cities to the countryside

The percentage of Latin American people living in cities is

Less than Europe, but greater than Africa and Asia.

With respect to religion, the vast majority of Latin Americans

are still nominally Roman Catholics.

Which of the following is NOT a Latin American literary figure of the late twentieth century?

Jose Oemente Orozco

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