A(n) __________ is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition.
There are __________ characteristics that are requirements for a substance to be a mineral.
To be __________ means that the mineral cannot form from materials that were once part of a living thing.
A mineral is always __________, with a definite volume and shape.
The particles of a mineral line up in a repeating pattern called a crystal. This pattern is called a(n) __________ __________.
A mineral must be formed by processes that occur in the natural world, making it a(n) __________ __________ substance.
definite chemical composition
A mineral has a __________ __________ __________ (or a range of one), meaning that a mineral always contains certain elements in definite proportions.
Each mineral has characteristic __________ that can be used to identify it.
The __________ of a mineral alone often provides too little information to make an identification.
The __________ of a mineral is the color of its powder.
You can observe a streak by rubbing a mineral against a piece of unglazed __________ tile.
__________ is the term used to describe how light is reflected from a mineral's surface.
Minerals containing __________ are often shiny.
__________ is the mass in a given space, or mass per unit volume.
__________ equals mass divided by volume.
An Austrian mineral expert invented a test to describe the __________ of minerals.
__________ __________ invented a test to describe the hardness of minerals.
A mineral can __________ any mineral softer than itself, but can be __________ed by any mineral that is harder.
There are __________ groups of crystal structures.
A mineral that splits easily along flat surfaces has the property called __________.
__________ describes how a mineral looks when it breaks apart in an irregular way.
Some minerals can be identified with __________ __________, which include fluorescence, magnetism, radioactivity, and reaction to acids.
Minerals that glow under ultraviolet light have a property known as __________.
A __________ is a rounded, hollow rock that is often lined with mineral crystals.
__________ is the process by which atoms are arranged to form a material with a crystal structure.
In general, minerals can form in two ways: by crystallization of magma and lava or by crystallization of materials __________ in water.
The __________ of crystals depends of several factors: the rate which magma cools, the amount of gas magma contains, and the chemical composition all affect crystal __________.
A __________ is a mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another.
When elements and compounds that are dissolved in water leave a solution, __________ occurs.
Some minerals form when solutions __________.
In the United States, __________ deposits have formed over millions of years due to the evaporation of ancient seas.
Deep underground, __________ can heat water to a high temperature.
A __________ is a narrow channel or slab of a mineral that is different from the surrounding rock.
Pure __________ that crystallize from hot water solutions underground often form veins.
All ocean mineral deposits are the common property of all __________.
__________s are the source of gemstones, metals, and a variety, of materials used to make many products.
A __________ is a hard, colorful mineral that has a brilliant or glassy luster.
Once a gemstone is cut and __________ed, it is called a gem.
Some minerals are the sources of __________ such as aluminum, iron, copper, or silver.
__________, a mineral found in sand, is used in making glass as well as in electronic equipment and watches.
The clear crystals of the mineral __________ are used in optical instruments.
__________, a soft, white mineral, is used to make wallboard, cement, and stucco.
To produce metal from a mineral, a rock containing the mineral must be located through __________ing and mined, or removed from the ground.
A rock must be __________ed to extract a metal.
A rock that contains a metal or other useful mineral that can be mined and sold at a profit is called an __________.
There are __________ types of mines.
open pit mining
In __________ __________ __________, miners use giant earthmoving equipment to dig a tremendous pit and remove ore deposits.
In the process of __________, an ore is mixed with other substances and then melted to separate the useful metal from other elements the ore contains.
A(n) __________ is a solid mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal.
After smelting, additional processing is needed to remove __________ from the metal.