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What differentiates Axis II disorders from
Axis I disorders in the DSM-IV Five Axes
diagnosis?

Develop in childhood and are pervasive,
inflexible and stable over time

What are the common features of all personality disorders?

-disrupted personal relationships
-problems are longstanding
-often associated with addictions, illegal behavior, etc
-marked more by impact on others than personal pain
-highly resistant to change

What are the essential features of the
three personality disorder clusters (A, B,
C)?

• A- odd, eccentric
• B- dramatic, erratic
• C- Fearful, anxious

What personality disorders are classified as Cluster A?

-Paranoid
-Schizoid
-Schizotypal

what are the key features of paranoid personality disorder?

pervasive pattern of unwarranted suspiciousness of others
-preoccupied w/ doubts about loyalty of friends
-reads hidden meanings into benign remarks
- suspects that others are exploiting them
-suspects that partner is cheating on him/her

what are the key features of schizoid personality disorder?

-Chronic lack of interest in and avoidance of interpersonal relationships
-coldness towards others
-little/no interest in sex with another person

what are the key features of schizotypal personality disorder?

-acute discomfort w/ relationships
-eccentricities of behavior
-magical thinking
-odd speech
-social anxiety w/ paranoid flavor

Which Personality Disorder has the
strongest genetic link to Schizophrenia?

schizotypal

what treatments exist for people with Cluster A personality disorders?

-Therapists help clients learn to reality-test their unusual thinking.
-Antipsychotics may help people with schizotypal personality disorder reduce their odd thinking.

What are the different Cluster B personality disorders?

-Antisocial
-Borderline
-Histrionic
-Narcissistic

What is the criteria for antisocial personality disorder?

Pervasive pattern of disregard for rights of others indicated by 3 or more:
-repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest
-deceitfulness, lying
-impulsivity
-aggressiveness
-reckless disregard for safety of self or others
-persistent irresponsibility
-lack of remorse

What are the age requirements for an Antisocial diagnosis?

-At least 18
-Evidence of conduct disorder before 15

What factors may be involved in the development of Antisocial PD?

-may have strong biological roots but also is associated with harsh and nonsupportive parenting.

What is the criteria for borderline PD?

pervasive pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects and marked impulsivity
-frantic efforts to avoid abandonment
-alternates between extremes of idealization and devaluation
-chronic feelings of emptiness

What factors are involved in the development of borderline PD?

-fundamental problems in emotion regulation,
-poor relationships early in life that affect the development of self-concept
-genetic factors
-low levels of serotonin.

What therapy was developed by Marcha Linehand to treat borderline PD?

Dialectical behavior therapy

what all is involved in dialectical behavior therapy?

-individual therapy
-group skills training
-telephone contact
-consultation amongst therapists

What skills does dialectical behavior therapy hope to increase?

-mindfullness
-distress tolerance
-emotion regulation
-interpersonal effectiveness
-walking the middle path

what are the characteristics of Narcissistic PD?

-grandiose sense of self importance
-fantasies of unlimited success
-thinks of self as "special"
-exploits others
-lacks empathy for others

what is the difference between borderline and histrionic PD?

people histrionic PD want to be the center of attention

what is the difference between histrionic and narcissistic PD?

people with histrionic PD look to others for approval

what are the personality disorders in Cluster C?

-Avoidant
-dependent
-Obsessive-Compulsive

what are the characteristics of avoidant PD?

-social withdrawl
-hypersensitivity to rejection
-reluctant to enter into relationships
-desire for acceptance and affection
-low self-esteem

what are the characteristics of dependent PD?

-difficulty making everyday decisions
-needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of their life
-has difficulty expressing disagreement
-has difficulty initiating projects on their own
-goes to obsessive lengths to obtain support/nurturance from others
-urgently seeks another close relationship when one ends

what are the characteristics of obsessive-compulsive PD?

-locked into rigid routines of behavior
-become anxious when their routines are violated.

Rose frequently asks her husband "do you love me?" despite his repeated reassurances that he does. Which anxious-fearful PD might Rose have?

Dependent PD

Unstable relationships and rapidly shifting
moods are symptoms of what TWO
personality disorders?

-Borderline
-Histrionic

The presence of Antisocial Personality
Disorder overlaps a great deal with a
common Axis I Disorder. What is it?

Hint:
NOT Conduct Disorder

ADHD

According to a psychodynamic therapist, a
patient with Histrionic Personality Disorder
is using what defense mechanism?

Repression

Which of the following statements about personality disorders is true?
A) By definition, personality disorders must be present continuously since childhood.
B) The majority of people diagnosed with one personality disorder meet the diagnostic criteria for at least one other personality disorder.
C) Since personality disorders are treated differently than acute disorders by the DSM-IV-TR, they are placed on Axis III of the diagnostic system.
D) Because they are more debilitating, people with personality disorders seek treatment more often than people with acute disorders.

B) The majority of people diagnosed with one personality disorder meet the diagnostic criteria for at least one other personality disorder.

Which of the following is not a criticism of the DSM-IV-TR criteria for personality disorders?
A) It is difficult to obtain reliable diagnoses of personality disorders.
B) It describes the disorders as extreme versions of normal personality traits.
C) The personality disorders are conceptualized as stable characteristics of an individual.
D) Information required for a personality disorder diagnosis is often hard to obtain from clients.

B) It describes the disorders as extreme versions of normal personality traits.

Which of the following is not a cognitive oddity exhibited by people with schizotypal personality disorder?
A) odd beliefs and magical thinking
B) illusions
C) dissociative thinking
D) ideas of reference

D) ideas of reference

People diagnosed with schizotypal personality disorder:
A) lose all contact with reality.
B) have a restricted range of emotions.
C) have hallucinations and delusions.
D) can handle most social situations.

B) have a restricted range of emotions.

Persons who are manipulative, volatile, uncaring in social relationships, and prone to impulsive behaviors best fit into which cluster of personality disorders?
A) odd-eccentric
B) anxious-fearful
C) schizotypal
D) dramatic-emotional

D) dramatic-emotional

People with antisocial personality disorder exhibit all of the following except:
A) deficits in the parietal lobes of the brain.
B) low levels of arousability.
C) deficits in executive functions.
D) deficits in verbal skills.

A) deficits in the parietal lobes of the brain.

Dialectical behavior therapy focuses on all of the following except:
A) increasing dichotomous thinking.
B) regulating emotions.
C) learning adaptive skills for solving problems.
D) controlling impulsive behavior.

A) increasing dichotomous thinking.

People with __________ behaviors are high users of outpatient mental health services and their risk of attempting suicide is very high.
A) borderline
B) antisocial
C) avoidant
D) narcissistic

A) borderline

The personality disorder that is diagnosed more often in women than in men and is characterized by rapidly shifting emotions, unstable relationships, and highly dramatic and seductive behaviors performed to gain the attention and approval of others, is known as:
A) narcissistic personality disorder.
B) dependent personality disorder.
C) histrionic personality disorder.
D) antisocial personality disorder.

C) histrionic personality disorder.

Psychodynamic treatment of dependent personality disorder includes all of the following except
A) graded exposure to anxiety-provoking situations.
B) free association.
C) dream interpretation.
D) interpretation of the transference process.

A) graded exposure to anxiety-provoking situations.

The personality disorder that is characterized by rigidness, perfectionism, and emotional blockage is:
A) avoidant personality disorder.
B) dependent personality disorder.
C) obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
D) histrionic personality disorder.

C) obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

The personality traits in the five-factor model:
A) include integrity.
B) appear to be strongly influenced by genetics.
C) capture little of the variation in people's personalities.
D) are only relevant to American culture.

B) appear to be strongly influenced by genetics.

Critics of dimensional models, such as the five-factor model, have noted:
A) a lack of emphasis on empirical research.
B) an over-emphasis on research that focuses on the small proportion of the population that has extreme personality disturbances.
C) that there is no answer to the question of where we should draw cutoffs between what is normal and what is pathological.
D) that they describe personality theories well but fall short of describing normal personality well.

C) that there is no answer to the question of where we should draw cutoffs between what is normal and what is pathological.

T/F
A personality trait is a complex pattern of behavior, thought, and feeling that is stable across time and across many situations.

True

T/F
Personality disorders are the easiest to see in yourself and your family members.

False

T/F
Schizotypal personality disorder is often treated with neuroleptics and the atypical antipsychotics.

True

T/F
Narcissistic personality disorder is common, especially among females.

False

T/F
Cognitive theorists Beck and Freeman view narcissism as a phase that all children pass through before transferring their love from themselves to significant others.

False

T/F
People with avoidant personality disorder worry about being criticized.

True

T/F
Drug treatments have proven very effective for borderline personality disorder.

False

T/F
Psychotherapy is not considered extremely effective for people with antisocial personality disorder.

True

T/F
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is more common in men than in women.

True

T/F
When clinicians are presented with the description of a person who exhibits the symptoms of a histrionic personality disorder, they are more likely to make that diagnosis if the person is described as female rather than male.

True

T/F
Many people with borderline personality disorder have histories of physical and sexual abuse during childhood.

True

T/F
The five-factor model is a theoretical scheme for the personality disorders.

True

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