Nutrition Exam 2

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Which of the following is known as blood sugar or dextrose?

Glucose

What is the principle carbohydrate of milk?

Lactose

Glycogen is stored mainly in which of the following tissues?

Muscle and Liver

What is the primary storage form of carbohydrate in the body?

Glycogen

Which of the following is an example of the difference between the chemical bonds in starch and those in cellulose?

Cellulose bonds are not hydrolyzed y human enzymes

Which of the following plays a major role in the breakdown of certain types of dietary fiber in the large intestines?

Bacteria

A "functional fiber" is one that...

is extracted from plants and has a beneficial health effect.

Digestion of starches takes place in the small intestines and also in the

mouth

Which of the following enzymes does not act on simple sugars?

Amylase

What is the primary absorption site for digestible carbohydrates?

Small Intestines

Where is the location of enzymes that digest dietary sugars?

Small Intestines

What is the primary organ that converts fructose to glucose following absorption?

Liver

What is the first organ to receive carbohydrates absorbed from the intestine?

Liver

All of the following are symptoms of lactose intolerance except...

constipation

A person diagnosed with milk allergy would be sensitive to the milk's

protein

Gluconeogenesis is a term that describes the synthesis of

glucose from a noncarbohydrate substance

What is the primary function of insulin?

Lowers blood glucose levels

What is the first organ to respond to an increase in blood glucose concentration?

Pancreas

When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?

Glucagon

Which of the following is known to correlate most strongly with reduced risk of deaths from heart disease?

High fiber intake

Which of the following is not a feature of high-fiber foods?

Provide more energy per gram than processed foods

In which form are most dietary lipids found?

Triglycerides

Which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?

Monounsaturated

Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of

double bonds.

What type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil?

Monounsaturated

Which of the following chemical characteristics of fatty acids determines their susceptibility to spoilage by oxygen?

Number of double bonds

of the following are rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids except

palm oil

Which of the following characteristics is shared by olive oil and canola oil?

Both contain high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids

Which of the following is a factor that determines the hardness of a fat at a given temperature?

Degree of saturation

An oil that is partially hydrogenated sometimes changes one or more of its double bond configurations from

cis to trans.

Which of the following is a feature of phospholipids?

Soluble in both water and fat

What type of compound is lecithin?

Phospholipid

What is the major sterol in the diet?

Cholesterol

Which of the following foods contains cholesterol?

Roasted turkey

How is soluble fiber in the diet thought to help lower blood cholesterol level?

It enhances excretion of bile leading to increased cholesterol turnover.

What part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?

Small intestine

Which of the following is not a feature of the bile acids?

Manufactured by the gallbladder

Bile is known to assist in the absorption of

fat only.

What is the storage site of bile?

Gallbladder

After a meal, most of the fat that eventually empties into the blood is in the form of particles known as

chylomicrons.

What lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol back to the liver from the periphery?

High-density lipoprotein

A low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of

high-density lipoproteins

A major function of fat in the body is to

protect vital organs.

Which of the following does not describe a function of fat?

Supplies up to 25% of the body's energy needs during rest

Which of the following lipids is an essential nutrient?

Linoleic acid

All of the following foods contain liberal amounts of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid except

soybean oil

What is the immediate precursor for the eicosanoids?

Fatty acids

What are the precursors for synthesis of the thromboxanes?

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

Which of the following vegetable oils is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids?

Canola

Which of the following is a good source of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA)?

Tuna

What is the function of adipose cell hormone-sensitive lipase?

Hydrolyzes triglycerides to provide fatty acids for other cells

What nutrient is used to form ketones?

Fat

Approximately how many kcalories are contained in a pound of body fat?

3,500

What are the building blocks in the body's synthesis and elongation of fatty acids?

2-carbon fragments

The results of blood tests that reveal a person's total cholesterol and triglycerides are called a

lipid profile

Each of the following is known to be linked to excessive intake of fats except

lactose intolerance.

Features consistent with the ingestion of high-fat diets include all of the following except

the diets initiate but do not promote cancer formation.

All of the following statements are characteristics of lipid intake of U.S. adults except

trans-fatty acid intake accounts for 1-2% of total fat intake.

Which of the following is a feature of fat intake and health?

Intake of saturated fat raises blood cholesterol more so than intake of cholesterol.

The oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed, and wheat germ represent a good source of preformed

linolenic acid.

Which of the following describes a recognized relationship between dietary fat and cancer?

High saturated fat intake raises the risk for prostate cancer.

According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum total fat intake as a percent of energy intake?

30

Why does the FDA advise against consumption of certain fish such as swordfish and shark by women of childbearing age?

These fish are a major source of toxic mercury.

What term is specific to reactions in which simple compounds are combined into more complex molecules?

Anabolic

What is the major energy carrier molecule in most cells?

ATP

Glycolysis is the conversion of

glucose to pyruvate

An aerobic reaction is one that requires

oxygen

The Cori cycle involves the interconversion of

lactic acid and glucose.

When a person is performing intense physical exercise and begins to feel fatigue and a burning pain in the muscles, it is most likely due to the muscles' accumulation of

lactic acid.

Which of the following compounds cannot be formed from fatty acids?

Glucose

After digestion and absorption, an amino acid not used to build protein will first be subjected to

removal of its amino group.

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