Definitions

81 terms by mtarcher 

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Lateral line system

series of sensory organs under the skin that detects changes in pressure waves

Swim bladder

gas-filled sac that allows bony fish to regulate buoyancy

Gill cover

hard plate, operculum, covers gills, flexing allows water to pump over gills

Ray-finned fishes

parallel bony rays support and stiffen fins; no muscles in fins

Lobe-finned fishes

paired fins that consist of a long, fleshy, muscular lobe; supported by central co-jointed bones

Amniotic egg

chorion - allows oxygen entry
amnion - fluid-filled cavity
yolk sac - provides food
allantois - excretes waste

Monotremes

Egg-laying mammals; duck-billed platypus, short-nosed and long-nosed echidna

Cloaca

found in monotremes; single opening for digestive and reproductive tracts

Marsupials

pouched mammals; egg has no shell; kangaroo and opposum

Placental mammals

produce true placenta that nourished embryo throughout development

Tissues

groups of cells that are similar in structure and function

Germ layers

endoderm
mesoderm
ectoderm

4 primary tissues

epithelial
connective
muscle
nerve

Organs

combos of different tissues that form a structural and functional unit

Organ systems

groups of organs that cooperate to perform the major activities of the body; vertebrate body contains 11

Dorsal body cavity

within skull and vertebrae

Ventral body cavity

bounded by rib cage and vertebral column

Thoracic cavity

heart and lungs

Abdominopelvic cavity

most organs

Peritoneal cavity

coelomic space

Pericardial cavity

around the heart

Pleural cavity

around the lungs

Epithelium

epithelial membrane, covers every surface of vertebrate body

Basal surface

secured side

Apical surface

free side

Goblet cells

found in simple columnar epithelium; secrete mucus

Exocrine glands

connected to epithelium by a duct; sweat, sebaceous and salivary glands

Endocrine glands

ductless; secretions (hormones) enter blood

Matrix

abundant extracellular material; protein fibers and ground substance

Fibroblasts

produce and secrete extracellular matrix

Collagen

supports tissue

Elastin

makes tissue elastic

Chondrocytes

cartilage cells that live within lacunae in the ground substances

Osteocytes

bone cells; remain alive in a matrix hardened with calcium phosphate; communicate through canaliculi

Erythrocytes

red blood cells; carry oxygen

Leukocytes

white blood cells (fight infection)

Thrombocytes

platelets (blood clotting)

Granular Leukocytes

Neutrophyls
Eosinophyls
Basophyls

Agranular Leukocytes

Monocytes
Lymphocytes (B and T cells)

Muscles

motors of vertebrate bodies (smooth, skeletal, and cardiac)

Myofibrils

contain ordered actin and myosin filaments; contract the muscle fibers

Intercalated disks

enable cardiac muscle cells to form a single functioning unit

3 parts of neurons

cell body
dendrites
axon

Cell body

contains the nucleus

Dendrites

highly branched extensions; conduct electrical impulses TOWARD cell body

Axon

single cytoplasmic extension; conducts impulses AWAY from cell body

Neuroglia

do not conduct electrical impulses; support and insulate neurons and eliminate foreign materials in and around neurons

Central nervous system (CNS)

brain and spinal cord
Integration and interpretation of input

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

nerves and ganglia; communication of signal to body

Negative feedback

used to maintain internal constancy

Integrating center

where information detected by sensors is fed; compares conditions to set point

Effector

muscle or gland that increases or decreases activity to bring internal conditions back to set point

Hypothalamus

detect changes in body temperature

Antagonistic effectors

have "push-pull" action; increase activity of one, decrease activity in other

Positive feedback

enhance a change; examples include blood clotting and contraction of uterus during childbirth

Gastrovascular cavity

found in cnidarians and flatworms; has only one opening and no specialized regions

Mucosa

epithelium that lines interior, or LUMEN, of the tract

Submucosa

connective tissue

Muscularis

double layer of smooth muscles

Serosa

epithelium that covers external surface of tract

Crop

storage of food; no digestion takes place

Proventriculis

glandular part of stomach; initial digestive enzymes are released

Gizzard

also known as the ventriculus; muscular chamber that uses ingested pebbles to pulverize food

Bolus

processed lump of food

Peristalsis

moves food down to stomach

Stomach

has convoluted surface, allowing for expansion; contains extra layer of smooth muscle for mixing food w/ gastric juice

Parietal cells

secrete HCl and intrinsic factors (for vit B12 absorption)

Chief cells

secrete pepsinogen

Pepsinogen

inactive form of pepsin

Chyme

mixture of partially digested food and gastric juices

Small intestine

consists of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; epithelial wall is covered w/ villi which are covered w/ microvilli

Pancreas

pancreatic fluid is secreted into duodenum through pancreatic duct

Enzymes released by pancreas

trypsin
chymotrypsin
pancreatic amylase
lipase

Liver

body's largest organ; secretes bile into duodenum; consists of bile pigments and bile salts

Gallbladder

stores and concentrates bile

Chylomicrons

reassembled fatty acids and monoglycerides that have diffuesd into epithelial cells; enter lymphatic system before the circulatory system

Large intestine

colon; no digestion occurs; 4% absorption; waste material concentrated

Rectum

compacted feces stored until it can be eliminated through anus

Ruminants

4-chambered stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum); cellulose-degrading microbes

Hind-gut fermentors

cellulose digested in cecum; single-chambered stomach; regurgitation not possible

Coprophagy

eat feces to absorb nutrients

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