body area between the diaphragm and pelvis.
a cranial nerve that deals with the lateral rectus muscle of the eyeball.
to move away from the midline; opposite of adduct.
a cranial nerve that deals with the muscles of the neck
Hip socket; formed by union of ilium, ischium, and pubis
A tendon in the back of the ankle and foot that attaches the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle to the calcaneus
a cranial nerve that deals with the detection of sound, sensory nerve that allows us to hear
movement toward the body
Adductor Magnus Muscle
Origin: inferior pubic ramus and ischial tuberosity
Insertion: runs inferiorly to insert on the medial surface of the femur
Notes: largest and deepest
the study of the endocrine system.
"teenager" - Puberty to adulthood.
are found one on top of each kidney. Each gland is divided into two parts the external area called the cortex and the internal area called the medulla. Adrenal cortex produces the S-secretions since they regulate salt balance, metabolism of sugar, and weak sex hormones (similar to testosterone). The adrenal medulla produces adrenaline (epinephrine) which helps prepare the body to either fight or flight during stress situations.
adult - Adolescence to old age.
relating to food or nutrition. Relating to the digestive system from the back of the mouth to the rectum. The digestive system tube from the mouth to the anus, including the mouth or buccal cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines.
Teeth set into this arch
microscopic sac-like dilations of terminal bronchioles.
Embryonic/Fetal membrane which gives rise to the amniotic fluid surrounding the baby.
Slightly movable joint, such as interosseous membranes, pubic symphysis, intervertebral
connection between vessel]s; for example, the Circle of Willis is an anastomosis of certain cerebral arteries.
method of locating a structure by reference to an adjacent known or prominent structure
point of origin and termination of a structure in relation to adjacent structures
standard position in which the body is facing forward, feet are parallel, and the arms are at the sides with palms facing forward
the branch of science dealing with the study of the structure of the body. The structure of an organism, morphology.
the study of the circulatory system. The study of vessels
before or in front of; refers to the ventral or front side of the body; before, in relation to time or space; in front of or in the front part of: ventral, hemal, as contrasted with dorsal, neural.
external openings of the nostrils.
Anterior Thigh Muscles
Sartorius, Quadriceps Femoris, Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis, Vastus Intermedius
Anterior Tibial Artery and Vein (O & T)
originates in the popliteal artery and terminates at the dorsalis pedis, the vein originates from the Dorsalis Pedis Vein and terminates at the popliteal vein.
Anterior-Lateral Muscles of the Abdomen
Outer-most Layer - External Oblique, Middle Layer - Internal Oblique, Inner-most Layer - Transverse
Anterior-Medial Muscles of the Abdomen
Rectus Abdominis, Pyramidalis, Linea Alba (NOT a muscle)
cavity: for example, the Antrum of Highmore, the space in each maxillary bone, or the maxillary sinus.
Antrum of Highmore
One of the paranasal sinuses found in the maxilla, also known as the maxillary air sinuses.
Aortic Semilunar Valve of the Heart
a valve located at the opening of the aorta consisting of three crescent-shaped cusps and serving to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles.
flat sheet of white fibrous tissue that serves as a muscle attachment, a tendon,
the bony structure that makes up the pectoral girdle, upper extremities, pelvic girdle, and lower extremities; relating to an appendix or appendage.
middle layer of brain & spinal cord
minute arteries with muscular walls and about 0.2 mm. in diameter; a terminal artery continuous ~with the capillary network.
The study of the arteries of the body.
vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
the place of union between two or more bones; a joint; a joining or connecting together loosely so as to allow motion between parts.
the study of joints or articulations
the first part of the colon in the right side of the abdomen.
the 1st cervical vertebra
80 bones including the skull, vertebrae, thorax and hyoid bone. This includes 74 bones that form the upright axis of the body and 6 tiny middle ear bones.
Axillary Artery and Vein (O & T)
the origin of the artery is the subclavian artery, the point of termination for the artery is where it becomes the brachial artery, the origin of the vein is the brachial vein, the point of termination for the vein is where it becomes the subclavian vein
second cervical vertebra
A large network of veins that drain blood from the abdominal organs and intestines back to the heart
Vein arising from the right ascending lumbar vein or the inferior vena cava, terminating at the superior vena cava
Basic Body Tissues
Epithelial Tissue, Connective Tissue, Muscle (or Muscular) Tissue, and Nerve (or Nervous) Tissue.
Basilar Artery (O & T)
originates when the vertebral arteries join and terminates by dividing into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Basilic Vein (O & T)
originates on the medial (ulnar) side of the dorsal venous network of the hand and terminates when it joins the brachial veins to form the axillary vein.
Beginning of Pulmonary Circulation
Beginning of Systemic Circulation
Flexes leg at the knee and extends thigh at the hip; belongs to the hamstring group
Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve of the Heart
aka the mitral valve, is the left atrioventricular valve. It consists of two cusps of endocardium.
refers to the symmetry of paired organs, or to an organism whose right and left halves are similar images of each other, or in which a median section divides the organism into equivalent right and left halves.
a small, sac-like structure attached to the inferior surface of the liver. In the gallbladder bile is concentrated and stored for future use in the small intestine. When fat-containing food products pass into the duodenum, hormones are triggered which cause the gallbladder to contract and release the bile into the digestive tract.
the organs and ducts that participate in the secretion, storage, and delivery of bile to the duodenum.
the study of all living things
Exit passageway to the outside of the mother's body.
a membranous sac or receptacle for a secretion or excretion.
A - 40-45% of population, B - 10-15% of population, AB - 4-5% of population, and O - 40-43% of population.
a soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells
the outer edge of an object, the line where one part ends and another starts
the branch of biology that studies plants
Brachial Artery and Vein (O & T)
originates from the axillary and terminates with the bifurcation of the radial and ulnar arteries, the vein originates when the radial and ulnar veins join and terminates by forming the axillary vein.
Brachiocephalic Artery (O & T)
originates from the arch of the aorta and terminates by bifurcating into the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery.
Brachiocephalic Veins (O & T)
originates by the union of the internal jugular and subclavian veins, and terminated by uniting with the opposite brachiocephalic vein to form the superior vena cava.
portion of the CNS above the spinal cord; consists of hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
the part of the brain continuous with the spinal cord and comprising the medulla oblongata and pons and midbrain and parts of the hypothalamus
Branches (2) of the Ascending Aorta
right and left coronary arteries
Branches (3) of the Arch of Aorta (in order)
brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid, left subclavian
mostly fat, 15-20 clusters of mammary glands, each with a separate opening to the nipple, surrounded by fatty and fibrous tissue in both men and women
the tubes going into the lungs.
the space between the lips and the gums and teeth; the vestibule of the oral cavity.
large tendon the inserts on the calcaneus; tension on this tendon produces plantar flexion of the foot; also called the Achilles tendon
the dome-shaped roof that protects the superior aspect of the brain. Consists of mainly the frontal bone anteriorly, the paired parietal bones in the middle and the occipital bone posteriorly.
also called spongy bone, its inner matrix is composed of small cavity-like spaces that are filled with marrow, appearance is similar to the structure of a bridge and it is light and strong
microscopic blood vessel; capillaries connect arterioles with venules. Also, microscopic lymphatic vessels,
the muscle tissue of the heart
This feature is found in the superior lobe of the left lung. It begins at the fourth costal cartilage and passes laterally. It is caused by the heart displacing the lung to the left.
between the stomach and esophagus normally prevents the highly acidic stomach contents form backing up into the esophagus
bones of the wrist (8); form a proximal row and a distal row
blind pouch; the pouch at the proximal end of the large intestine.
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
Cephalic Vein (O & T)
originates from the lateral side of the hand and terminates by becoming a tributary to the superior portion of the axillary vein.
second largest portion of the brain, occupies the back of the brain, it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance.
Cerebral Arterial Circle (Circle of Willis)
circle of Willis; receives blood from the internal carotid and basilar ateries; surrounds the pituitary gland and optic chiasm
fills the ventricles; circulates continually between the ventricles and through the subarachnoid space and serves as a shock absorber to protect the brain and spinal cord
the largest part of the brain that interprets input from the senses, controls the movement of skeletal muscles, and carries out complex mental processes
modified sweat glands, located in external ear canal, secretes cerumen (earwax)
Neck, 7 vertebrae; most flexible portion of vertebrae column, Atlas: Initial vertebrae, Axis: Second vertebrae
Cervical Spinal Nerves
The most superior group consists of eight pairs of spinal nerves
neck; any neck-like structure.
child - One year to puberty.
Concha (as in nasal conchae)
specifically, the three of these (inferior, superior, and middle) lobe-like structures increase the air turbulence. This also helps to ensure that the air entering the nostrils gets warmed, moistened and filtered by the nasal mucosa
"heart strings" are tiny white collagenic cords that anchor the cusps to the ventricular walls. They originate from the papillary muscles.
Embryonic/Fetal membrane that surrounds the amnion.
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
Chyle - Lymphatic System
Milky fluid, consisting of lymphs and emulsified fats that is absorbed into the lymphatic system from the small intestine.
Circle of Willis
receives blood from the internal carotid and basilar ateries; surrounds the pituitary gland and optic chiasm
Cisterna Chyli - Lymphatic System
an enlarged pouch on the thoracic duct that serves as a storage area for lymph moving toward its point of entry into the venous system
bone linking the scapula and sternum (aka collarbone)
a mass of highly sensitive erectile tissue, located at the anterior junction of the labia minora.
CNS - Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal chord.
the fused bones at the inferior end of the vertebral column.
provided by anastomoses, an alternate route that can supply the tissue with blood if the primary route becomes obstructed
the part of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum.
Common Iliac Artery and Vein (O & T)
the artery originates at the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta and terminates by bifurcating into the internal/hypogastric and external iliac arteries; also known as the hypogastric vein, originates by the union of the small veins of the lateral wall of the pelvic cavity, and terminates by uniting with the external iliac vein to form the common iliac vein.
layer of protective hard bone tissue surrounding every bone
a curved protuberance at the end of a bone forming an articulation. A rounded projection; example, condyles of the femur.
imaginary line passing through the body from head to feet that divides the body into front and back portions
the outer layer of an organ as distinguished from the inner medulla, as in the adrenal gland, kidney, or cerebrum.
the cavity containing the brain
Cranial Nerves by Name
Olfactory nerve, Optic nerve, Oculomotor nerve, Trochlear nerve, Trifacial nerve, Abducent nerve, Facial nerve,. Acoustic nerve, Glossopharyngeal nerve, Vagus nerve, Accessory nerve, Hypoglossal nerve
Cranial Nerves by Number
I. Olfactory nerve, II. Optic nerve, III. Oculomotor nerve, IV. Trochlear nerve,
V. Trifacial nerve, VI. Abducent nerve, VII. Facial nerve, VIII. Acoustic nerve,
IX. Glossopharyngeal nerve, X. Vagus nerve, XI. Accessory nerve, XII. Hypoglossal nerve
the part of the skull that encloses the brain
a ridge; example, the iliac crest a less prominent ridge is called a line; example, ileopectineal line.
the horizontal plate of the ethmoid bone separating the cranial cavity from the nasal cavity
ring of cartilage that goes all the way around the larynx
Cystic Artery (T)
terminates in the gallbladder/ bile sac.
aka milk teeth, the initial set of teeth which usually appear between the ages of 6 months and 2.5 years. They are shed around the age of 6
Deep Brachial Artery and Vein (O / T)
the artery originates at the brachial artery and terminates by anastomosing with the radial recurrent artery.
Deep Palmar (Volar) Arch (O)
originates from the radial artery, loops around and connects with the ulnar artery.
also called compact bone, , the long part of long bones, in which yellow marrow is found and stores fat
study of the skin and its diseases
second layer of skin, holding blood vessels, nerve endings, sweat glands, and hair follicles
the section of the colon which turns downward at the splenic flexure and descends on the left side of the abdomen.
caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone or by the inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to this hormone
condition that occurs when the pancreas produces too little insulin, resulting in an increase in the level of blood glucose
A freely movable joint
located between the midbrain and the cerebrum and consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, optic chiasma, and pineal body
breakdown of food substances into simpler forms that can be absorbed and used
farthest from the center, from a medial line, or from the trunk; opposite of proximal, toward the end of a structure.
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
genes that have a controlling influence over weaker, recessive genes.
posterior, pertaining to the back: opposite of ventral, opposite of anterior.
Contains the cranial cavity and the vertebral canal; brain and spinal cord.
Ductus Arteriosus - Fetal Circulation
blood vessel between aorta and pulmonary artery which allows blood to bypass the lungs in the fetus
a duct that carries spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
brings oxygenated blood from Mom's umbilical vein and links up with baby's inferior vena cava bypassing the liver.
the first and shortest pan of the small intestine.
the thick, tough, outermost membrane of the meninges
channels filled with blood where dura mater splits that receive blood from the veins of the brain and empty into the jugular veins.
a chain of bones from the tympanic membrane (laterally) to the oval window of the inner ear (medially) and consist of the hammer, anvil, and stirrup. (malleus, incus, and stapes)
the outermost of the three germ layers of an embryo that develops into the epidermis and epidermal tissues, the nervous system, external sense organs, and the mucous membranes lining the mouth and anus
Eight (8) Branches of the External Carotid Artery
occipital artery, linguinal artery, facial artery, superior thyroid, posterior aricular, ascending pharyngeal, superficial, temporal, and maxillary.
The third and final segment of the spermatic duct, is only about one inch in length. The ejaculatory duct empties semen into the urethra.
Elemental Body Tissues
there are four basic types of tissue: epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissue.
Study of Human Anatomy before Birth.
Fertilization through 8th week (through the 2nd Lunar Month or 56th day).
a prominence or projection, especially of a bone.
that part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers
End of Pulmonary Circulation
End of Systemic Circulation
the innermost lining of the heart
pertaining to a ductless gland that secretes directly into the bloodstream; secreting into the blood or tissue fluid rather than into a duct; opposite of exocrine.
the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
inner lining of the uterus
the internal skeleton
the specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs
External layer of the heart
a projection on a bone above a condyle serving for the attachment of muscles and ligaments
made up of the frontalis and occiptus connected by fibrous sheath (aka occipitofrontalis)
the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface.
a tightly coiled and twisted structure, which lies against the posterior surface of the testes.
a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe while swallowing
red blood cells
the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
often referred to as the "feminizing" hormone, as it is responsible for the development of female sex characteristics, such as the development and maturing of the genitals, the growth of pubic hair, and initiation of the menstrual cycle.
irregularly shaped bone anterior to the sphenoid; forms the roof of the nasal cavity, upper nasal septum, and part of the medial orbit walls
Eustachian Valve (of the Heart) - Fetal Circulation
helps direct the flow of oxygen-rich blood though the right atrium into the left atrium via the foramen ovale
elimination of wastes from the body (urine, carbon dioxide, sweat)
pertaining to a gland that delivers its secretion through a duct, secreting into a duct.
increasing the angle between two bones, or straightening a body part
External auditory meatus
the lateral, outer opening of the external auditory canal.
External Iliac Artery and Vein (O & T)
originates as the continuation of the common iliac artery and terminates as it becomes the femoral artery.
External Jugular Vein (O & T)
originates from the union of the posterior auricular vein and the communicating branch of the retromandibular vein, and terminates by becoming a tributary to the subclavian vein.
the exchange between the inspired air in the alveoli of the lungs with the red blood cells.
the front of the human head from the forehead to the chin and ear to ear
Face (Bones of)
Mandible (Body, Condyle (or head), Alveolar process, Angle, Ramus) and Maxilla (Alveolar process, Maxillary sinus or Antrum of Highmore, Palatine process)
a cranial nerve that deals with the skin of neck, scalp and external ear, taste buds and middle ear.
either of a pair of tubes conducting the egg from the ovary to the uterus
Last 5 pairs of ribs that attach to sternum by attaching to other cartilage
Female sex cell, also called the egg, ova, ovum.
Femoral Artery and Vein (O & T)
originates from the external iliac artery and terminates where it becomes the popliteal artery, the vein originates as a continuation of the popliteal vein, and terminates by becoming the external iliac vein.
A triangular space at the upper part of the thigh, bounded by the sartorius and adductor longus muscles and the inguinal ligament. Also called Scarpa's triangle.
Femoral Triangle - Lateral Border
Femoral Triangle - Medial Border
Adductor Longus Muscle
Femoral Triangle - Superior Border
Femoral Triangle (relative positions of artery, vein & nerve)
within the femoral triangle, running medial to lateral, the femoral vein, femoral artery, and femoral nerve.
Union of the Sperm and the Egg.
From the 9th week (3rd Lunar Month or the 57th day) through Birth.
the outer and thinner of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle
bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased
last two pairs of ribs; do not attach to sternum
a temporarily unossified area on the surface of the cranium of an infant
a hole, small opening2 example, foramen magnum of the occipital hone.
the large opening at the base of the cranium through which the spinal cord passes
Foramen Ovalis - Fetal Circulation
First fetal circulation difference. It becomes the Fossa Ovalis
cavity or hollow.
shallow depression in interatrial septum; remains of foramen ovale
Four (4) Segments of the Aorta (in order)
ascending aorta, arch of the aorta, descending aorta, abdominal aorta
the large cranial bone forming the front part of the cranium: the forehead and the upper part of the orbits
a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
the hollows formed on either side of the separation of the two plates of the frontal bone beneath the superciliary ridge.
Function of Erythrocytes
takes up oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to cells elsewhere in the body
Function of Leukocytes
Defend against infectious pathogens (disease causing bacteria or virus) and foreign materials
Function of the Lymphatic System
This systems functions are (1) to transport tissue fluid to the blood vessels, and (2) to protect the body by removing foreign material such as bacteria from the lymphatic stream and by serving as a cite for lymphocytes "policing of body fluids and lymphocyte multiplication. It is a one-way system that carries lymph only towards the heart.
Function of Thrombocyte
One of the formed elements of the blood; functions in blood clotting; also called platelet
Functions of the Skin
Protection, Sensation, Heat regulation, Control of evaporation, Storage and synthesis, Absorption, Water resistance.
Fundus (of Stomach)
The upper left portion of the stomach, which has a curved, dome-shaped appearance.
Fundus (of Uterus)
The upper, dome-shaped portion of the uterus
cranial aponeurosis connecting frontal and occipital bellies
a pear-shaped sac, containing bile, on the under surface of the liver.
the muscle in the back part of the leg that forms the greater part of the calf, responsible for the plantar flexion of the foot
Genicular Artery and Vein (O / T)
the artery originates as a branch of the popliteal artery and terminates (?), while the vein originates (?) and ends by joining the popliteal vein.
a smooth prominence of the frontal bone between and above the eyebrows
a secretory organ or structure; a cell or group of cells that can manufacture a secretion, a secreting structure.
a cranial nerve that deals with the muscles of the tongue
vocal apparatus of the larynx, consists of the vocal cords and opening between them
(hips) Gluteus Maximus and Gluteus Minimus
reproductive glands-male, testes; female, ovaries
a tiny sac-like structure where eggs that eventually reach the mature stage within the ovary are contained.
flexes knee; adducts thigh, straight muscle on inside of thigh.
Great (Long) Saphenous Vein (O & T)
originates from where the dorsal vein of the first digit (the large toe) merges with the dorsal venous arch of the foot, and it terminates by joining with the femoral vein.
Posterior Femoral Muscles - Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus.
Head (of a bone)
a rounded projection beyond a narrow neckline portion; example. head of the femur.
Hemizygous Vein (T)
a continuation of the left ascending lumbar vein, crosses the midline at the 8th vertebra and empties into the azygos vein
Hemorrhage per Diapedesis
a condition in which blood leaks through the apparently unruptured walls of blood vessels into surrounding tissue, as a reaction to severe inflammation or injury.
Hepatic Portal System
branch of systemic circulation; picks up nutrients from intestine, delivers to liver for processing, distribution to body tissues
a gland that has both endocrine and exocrine functions, such as the pancreas.
the branch of biology that studies the microscopic structure of animal or plant tissues
the active chemical substance found in a secretion.
bone extending from the shoulder to the elbow
a component of gastric juice that helps create the environment that pepsin needs to break down protein in the stomach.
shaped like the letter U; bone of this shape at the base of the tongue.
Hypogastric Artery and Vein (O / T)
the artery arises at the bifurcation of the common iliac and terminates by the anastomoses of the uterine and ovarian arteries, the vein originates by the union of the small veins of the lateral wall of the pelvic cavity, and terminates by uniting with the external iliac vein to form the common iliac vein.
cranial nerve that controls the muscles of the tongue
about the size of a pea and found on the underside of the brain (at the hypothalamus), in the protected area called the sella turcica (Turkish saddle) of the sphenoid bone. Alternate names for the pituitary are Hypophysis Cerebri (means under the brain) and the Master Gland. The pituitary gland is divided into two lobes anterior and posterior. The anterior lobe of the pituitary produces growth hormones and serves to regulate sex characteristics as well as several other glands. The posterior lobe produces pituitrin, which regulates urine production, and causes the uterus to contract during labor.
Ileocolic Artery and Vein (O & T)
arises from the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery and I have no idea what it does next, nor what the vein does.
the third portion of the small intestine, about 12 feet in length.
When the fertilized egg has attached itself to the wall of the uterus (endometrium).
Incus (or Anvil)
small bone of the inner ear between malleus and stapes
infant - End of 4th week to one year.
Inferior Turbinate Bone
the largest turbinates, and can be as long as the index finger in humans, and are responsible for the majority of airflow direction, humidification, heating, and filtering of air inhaled through the nose.
Inferior Vena Cava (O & T)
formed from the union of the two iliac veins and terminates in the right atrium.
Aponeurosis that extends from the pubis to the anterior superior spine of the ilium, also known as Poupart's Ligament
Innominate Artery (O & T)
a large artery arising from the arch of the aorta and divides into the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery
Also called the os coxae or hip bone. It is the pelvis portion of the lower extremity. It consists of the ilium, ischium, and pubis and unites with the sacrum and coccyx to form the pelvis.
Innominate Vein (O & T)
veins formed by the union of the internal jugular and subclavian veins and terminates in the superior vena cava.
Insertion of a muscle
muscle end attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts
an endocrine secretion necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates.
relating to the cutis, derma, skin. It is composed of two strata, the epidermis and dermis and contains the sweat glands. sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and touch corpuscles.
Internal Iliac Artery and Vein (O / T)
the artery originates from the common iliac artery and terminates at the femoral artery while the internal iliac vein is a continuation of the femoral vein, to form the common iliac vein.
Internal Jugular Vein (O & T)
a continuation of the sigmoid sinus of the dura mater, joins the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic vein
the exchange that occurs between the red blood cells and the tissues of the body.
a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)
lower, rear portion of the pelvis on which one sits
Islets (or Islands) of Langerhans
clusters of cells in the pancreas which produce insulin.
the portion of the small intestine, about eight feet in length, between the duodenum and the ileum.
the point of juncture between two bones; an articulation.
two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the vertebral column on the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity behind the parietal peritoneum. Their function is to remove waste products from the blood and to aid in maintaining water and electrolyte balances.
abnormally deep dorsal curvature of the thoracic spine; humpback or hunchback
the two folds of skin, running inferiorly and posteriorly from the mons pubis
the two smaller folds of tissue, covering the entrance way into the vagina
small fragile bone making up part of the front inner walls of each eye socket and providing room for the passage of the lacrimal ducts
Lacteals - Lymphatic System
Specialized lymphatic capillaries in the intestines that take up lipids as well as lymph.
Fine downy-like hair on the fetus that begins to appear during the fifth month of prenatal development and begins to disappear before birth.
is approximately five feet in length, and is generally subdivided into four main segments.
the organ of voice production; the upper part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea.
of or toward the side; opposite of medial, pertaining to the side of the body; away from the median plane.
Lateral Epicondyle (of the Upper Extremity)
distal end of the humerus, smaller bump
protruding bone on the distal end of the fibula, lateral side
Left Atrio-ventricular valve of the Heart
mitral or bicuspid valve.
Left Colic Artery (O & T)
originates at the inferior mesenteric and terminates (?)
Left Common Carotid Artery (O)
originates from the arch of the aorta
Left Gastroepiploic Artery (T - be specific)
This branch off the splenic artery supplies the greater curvature of the stomach
Left Lymphatic Duct (O) - Lymphatic System
receives lymph from left side of chest, head, abdomen, and lower limbs. Carries lymph to left subclavian vein, then superior vena cava, and to right atrium
A white blood cell; typically functions in immunity, such as phagocytosis or antibody production.
midline of chest where abdominal aponeuroses meet (NOT a muscle)
a line drawn or visualized on the surface of the skin to represent the approximate location of some deeper lying structure
List the Visceral Tributaries to the Inferior Vena Cava
Illiac vein (common), Lumbar vein, Testicular vein, Renal vein, Suprarenal vein and Hepatic vein.
the largest gland in the body; secretes bile and is of great importance in protein and carbohydrate metabolism.
abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (sway-back condition)
Lower Extremity (Bones)
Innominate or Os Coxa (hip-bone) - (Ilium, Ischium, Pubic bone or pubis, Acetabulum, Iliac crest, Anterior superior iliac spine, Pubic tubercle, Symphysis pubis (or pubic symphysis), Obturator foramen, Pubic Angle), Femur - (Head, Greater trochanter, Lesser trochanter, Medial & Lateral Condyles & Epicondyles), Tibia - (Crest, Medial malleolus), Fibula - (Lateral malleolus), Tarsals - (Calcaneus, Talus)
Lumbar Spinal Nerves
There are five pairs of lumbar spinal nerves cone from the spinal cord at the small of the back.
cone-shaped organs, large enough to fill the pleural portion of the thoracic cavity completely. The left lung is partially divided by fissures into two lobes, upper and lower, and the right lung into three lobes, superior, middle and inferior. In relation to the lungs, the heart is medial.
Lymph Vessel (Definition only) - Lymphatic System
a vascular duct that carries lymph which is eventually added to the venous blood circulation
temporal process, the posterior projection that unites with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, together they form the zygomatic arch
the sperm (spermatozoa, spermatozoon, "seed")
Malleus (or Hammer)
has two main parts: the manubrium ("handle"), which adheres to the tympanic membrane, and the head, which articulates with the incus (anvil).
lie anterior to the pectoral muscles of the thorax, and are attached to them by connective tissue. The anterior surface of each breast contains a circular, pigmented area called the areola, surrounding a protruding nipple. Internally, the mammary glands contain 15-20 lobes in a radial arrangement around the nipple. The subdivisions within these lobes contain the milk secreting glands. When milk is being produced, it is secreted from these glands through a series of ducts ending up in the nipple. Also embedded within the breast are varying amounts of adipose tissue, which essentially determines the size of the breast.
Largest & Strongest bone of the face only Movable Bone, it is made up of the Ramus & Body
the depression in the temporal bone into which the condyle of the mandible fits.
handle: upper part of the sternum.
the pituitary gland, controls many other glands, attached to base of hypothalamus
round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear
Maxilla or Maxillary Bone
Forms most of the upper jaw, and part of the hard palate, contains upper molars, premolars, and canines
superficial philtrum, lateral parts of upper lip, secondary palate, maxilla minus premaxilla, zygomatic, squamous temporal
a passage or opening, a tube-shared opening; example, the external auditory meatus.
of or toward the middle; opposite of lateral, pertaining to the middle; toward the median plane of the body.
Medial Epicondyle (of the Lower Extremity)
lateral side of the distal end of the femur , superior to medial condyle.
inferior projection of the tibia which forms the medial bulge of the ankle; articulates with the ankle
Medial Muscles of the Thigh
Adductor Group - Gracilis, Adductor Longus, Adductor Brevis, and Adductor Magnus.
divides the body into right and left halves. Also called the midsagittal plane.
middle section of the thorax, that is, between the two lungs.
Latin for marrow-: hence the inner portion of an organ in contrast to the outer portion or cortex; the inner or central portion of an organ in contrast to the outer portion or cortex.
lower or hindmost part of the brain, contains centers that control several visceral functions, including breathing, heart and blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, and digestion.
Medullary Cavity (or Canal)
central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone
sheet or thin layer.
..., three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.
the middle germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue
Five numbered (1-5 lateral to medial) metacarpal bones form the palm
the five long bones of the foot, which are numbered from the medial side.
Middle Colic Artery (O & T)
given off by the superior mesenteric artery (proximal part), gives off branches that anastomose with right colic artery and left colic branch of the inferior mesenteric artery
Middle Nasal Concha
aka turbinate bone, part of the ethmoid bone located just above the inferior nasal concha in the nasal cavity, covered by thick mucosa to warm and moisturize inhaled air
Mitral (Bicuspid) Valve of the Heart
aka the bicuspid valve, is the left atrioventricular valve. It consists of two cusps of endocardium.
the area of adipose tissue and skin, covered with pubic hair, which overlies the pubic bone
Muscles of Facial Expression
Buccinator, Corrugator, Depressor Anguli Oris, Levator Anguli Oris, Depressor Labii Inferioris, Levator Labii Superioris, Mentalis, Orbicularis Otis, Orbicularis Oculi, Procerus, Risorus, and Zygomaticus.
Muscles of Mastication
Masseter, Temporal, Lateral Pterygoid (External Pterygoid), and Medial Pterygoid (Internal Pterygoid).
Muscles of the Arm
Anterior - Biceps Brachii, Coracobrachialis, Brachialis, Posterior - Triceps Brachii.
Muscles of the Back
Outermost Layer - Trapezius, Latissimus Dorsi, Middle Layer - Rhomboids, Levator Scapulae, Innermost Layer - Sacrospinalis (or Erector Spinae).
Muscles of the Chest
Pectoralis Major, Pectoralis Minor, and Serratus Anterior.
Muscles of the Eye
Superior Rectus, Inferior Rectus, Lateral Rectus, Medial Rectus, Superior Oblique, and Inferior Oblique.
Muscles of the Forearm
Ventral Aspect - Pronator Teres, Flexor Carpi Radialis (Linear guide to raise Radial Artery), Palmaris Longus, Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (Linear guide to raise Ulnar Artery), Flexor Digitorum Superficialis, and Dorsal Aspect - Superficial - Brachioradialis, Deep - Abductor Pollicis.
Muscles of the Neck
Sternocleidomastoid, Platysma, and Digastricus.
Muscles of the Shoulder
Deltoid, Subscapularis, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Major, and Teres Minor.
the middle muscular layer of the heart.
the branch of botany that studies fungi and fungus-caused diseases
the study of the muscular system, the study of muscles.
the middle, muscular layer of the uterus, consisting of thick, smooth muscle tissue.
nostrils, the nostrils.
either of two bones of the skull that lie in front of the frontal bones andare oblong in shape forming by their junction the bridge of the nose and partly covering the nasal cavity
inferior, superior, and middle turbinate bones and helps to ensure that the air entering the nostrils gets warmed, moistened and filtered by the nasal mucosa
the partition that divides the nasal cavity into two sections, the dividing wall between the two nasal cavities. formed posteriorly of bone (mainly the vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid), anteriorly of cartilage.
newborn - Birth through 4th week
the study of the nervous system.
Nine (9) Vessels of the Cerebral Arterial Circle
anterior cerebral (2), anterior communicating (1), internal carotid (2), posterior communicating (2), and posterior cerebral (2).
smooth (involuntary) muscle, lacks cross stripes or striations, found in walls of hollow visceral structures such as digestive tract, blood vessels, and ureters.
Normal Curves of the Vertebral Column
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral (or pelvic). Anteriorly, the cervical curve is convex, the thoracic curve is concave, the lumbar curve is convex, and the sacral curve is concave (this curve includes the coccyx)
the organ of smell and entrance to the respiratory tract
Number of Cervical Vertebra
Number of Coccygeal Vertebra
Number of Lumbar Vertebra
Number of Sacral Vertebra
Number of Thoracic Vertebra
the hole created by the ischium and pubis bones of the pelvis through which nerves and muscles pass. In the male it is round, in the female it is oval.
located at the back of the head near the neck, forms the back of the skull.
a cranial nerve that deals with the vertical and horizontal movement of the eyeball
process of the ulna that forms the outer bump of the elbow and fits into the fossa of the humerus when the arm is extended
a cranial nerve that deals with the detection of odors
refers to the process of egg or ova formation, which occurs in the ovaries.
Openings of the Diaphragm
the aortic, the esophageal, and the vena cava.
a cranial nerve that deals with the detection of light and color
the cavity of the mouth; the part of the mouth behind the gums and teeth that is bounded above by the hard and soft palates and below by the tongue and by the mucous membrane connecting it with the inner part of the mandible
the bony cavity in the skull containing the eyeball
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
an opening; the mouth, entrance, or outlet of any anatomical structure; an opening.
Origin of a muscle
the point at which it attaches to a bone (usually) or another muscle. The structure that the origin is attached to is not moved by the contraction of the muscle.
a bone part of your appendicular skeleton and the pelvic (lower) girdle; one n each side of the hip; used to be 3 separate bones before they fused together: ischium, ilium, and pubis; women have larger hip bones
any small bone, especially one of the three bones of the middle ear, small bones; specifically one of the bones of the tympanum or drum of the ear.
the study of the bones and the disorders and diseases of the skeletal system
the female gamete (ovum, egg).
the essential organs of the female reproductive system, and are located in the pelvic cavity, attached by ligaments to the pelvic wall, are considered heterocrine glands because they produce both an exocrine product (ova) and endocrine secretions, or hormones.
Under the influence of hormones, one of the Graafian follicles ruptures through the wall of the ovary each month, expelling an ovum
the female gamete (ova, egg).
Paired Visceral Branches (3) of the Abdominal Aorta
Suprarenal or adrenal, renal, gonadal (ovarian or testicular)
either of two irregularly shaped bones that form the back of the hard palate and helps to form the nasal cavity and the floor of the orbits
forms the anterior portion of the hard palate (roof) of the mouth also forms parts of the nasal cavity and eye orbits
an elongated lobulated organ composed of both exocrine glandular tissue and endocrine glandular tissue. Secretes digestive enzymes, insulin, and glucagon.
cone-shaped muscular projections of the inner ventricular surface to which the chordae tendineae attach - function to limit movement of valve cusps and prevent back-flow of blood
located in the sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillary, and frontal bones they surround the nasal cavity and make the skull lighter; they also serve as resonance chambers for speech
hormone synthesized and released into the blood stream by the parathyroid glands; regulates phosphorus and calcium in the body and functions in neuromuscular excitation and blood clotting
Glands found embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. Typically there are two small oval glands on each lobe, there may be more and some can be located in other regions of the neck.
of the walls of an organ or cavity, pertaining to, or forming, the wall of a cavity; pertaining to the parietal bone.
either of two skull bones between the frontal and occipital bones and forming the top and sides of the cranium
Parietal Branches (3) of the Abdominal Aorta
Inferior phrenic, lumbar, mid-sacral
Parietal Branches (3) of the Descending Thoracic Aorta
Posterior intercostal, subcostal, superior phrenic
the tough outermost layer of the pericardium that is attached to the diaphragm and the sternum
located near the ear.
a small flat triangular (sesamoid) bone in front of the knee that protects the knee joint.
pertaining to the chest or breast, pertaining to the front of the chest.
the male organ that transfers sperm to a female and that carries urine out of the body.
the space between the layers of the pericardium that contains fluid that lubricates the membrane surfaces and allows easy heart movement
a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles; contains nerves and blood vessels that nourish the enclosed bone
located at, or pertaining to, the periphery, or outer surface of the body or body part; occurring away from the center; pertaining to an outside surface.
Peripheral Nervous System
the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
The space within the abdomen that contains the stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, reproductive organs, and urinary bladder.
inferior projection of the ethmoid that forms the superior part of the nasal septum.
pH of Blood (in life)
7.3 to 7.4
a cell that engulfs and digests debris and invading microorganisms
finger or toe bones.
the throat; the upper expanded portion of the digestive tract between the esophagus below the mouth and nasal cavities above and in front.
The study of veins and their diseases
the branch of biology dealing with the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts, including all physical and chemical processes.
the third layer of the meninges, located nearest to the brain and spinal cord
endocrine gland that produces a large amount of hormones; it regulates growth and helps control other endocrine glands; located on underside of brain in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone; sometimes called the "master gland"
Plantar Arteries (O)
posterior tibial artery divides beneath the origin of the Adductor hallucis into the medial and lateral plantar arteries.
liquid part of the blood.
fragment of a blood cell originating in the bone marrow that is involved in blood clotting
the cavity in the thorax that contains the lungs
peripheral nervous system
a band of nerve fibers linking the medulla oblongata and the cerebellum with the midbrain
Popliteal Artery and Vein (O & T)
originates at the femoral artery and terminates when it bifurcates into the anterior tibial artery and posterior tibial artery.
Portal Vein (O & T)
originates by the union of the splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein and terminates by dividing into a right and left branch just before entering the liver
Posterior Muscles of Abdomen
Psoas Major, Psoas Minor, and Iliacus
openings between the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx
Posterior Thigh Muscles
Hamstring muscles - Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus
Posterior Tibial Artery and Vein (O & T)
originates as a bifurcation of the popliteal artery and terminates in the plantar arteries; vein originates by the merging of the Medial and Lateral Plantar Veins and merges with the Anterior Tibial to form the Popliteal Vein.
responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics and the regulation of reproduction
rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward
the living substance of a cell (including cytoplasm and nucleus)
a part that is prominent beyond a surface, like a knob; An outgrowth, a swelling
nearest the point of attachment, the center of the body, or a point of reference; the opposite of distal.
a digestive amylase secreted in saliva
the junction of the pubic bones on the midline of the body.
circulation of blood between the heart and the lungs
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve of the Heart
(sometimes referred to as the pulmonic valve) is the semilunar valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps.
the aperture between the stomach and duodenum; the smooth muscle around the opening of the stomach into the duodenum.
the sphincter muscle of the pylorus that separates the stomach from the duodenum
Radial Artery and Vein (O & T)
the vein originates at the volmer and terminates at the brachial; the artery originates at the bifurcation of the brachial and terminates at the volmer
the outer and slightly shorter of the two bones of the human forearm
the posterior part of the mandible that is more or less vertical
genes that are expressed as a trait only if paired with a matching recessive gene
the terminal section of the alimentary canal from the sigmoid flexure to the anus.
Red Blood Cells
disc shaped cells that contain hemoglobin for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body.
Regions of the Abdomen
9 regions - right hypochondriac, inferior to the hypochondriac is the lumbar, inferior to the lumbar is the inguinal, central regions begin with the epigastric, inferior to epigastric is the umbilical, inferior to the umbilical is the hypogastric, left regions are the same as the right regions.
the aperture between the stomach and duodenum; the smooth muscle around the opening of the stomach into the duodenum.
the process for the exchange of oxygen from inspired air for the carbon dioxide produced as a result of metabolism in the body.
relating to those organs and tissues from the nostrils to the air sacs in the lungs involved with the intake of air,.
Rh Factor & Percentage
protein substance present in the red blood cells; About 85 %of Caucasians are Rh-positive, 90 to 95 %of African Americans and 98 to 99 % of Asian Americans.
The bones in the chest that protect the heart and lungs.
Right Atrio-ventricular valve of the Heart
Right Colic Artery (O & T)
arises from the superior mesenteric artery and terminates at the ascending colon
Right Common Carotid Artery (O)
originates in the neck from the brachiocephalic trunk
Right Gastric Artery (T - be specific)
arises from the common hepatic artery, above the pylorus, descends to the pyloric end of the stomach, and supplies blood to the lesser curvature of the stomach.
Right Lymphatic Duct
collects lymph from the right side of the head and neck, the upper right quadrant of the body, and the right arm; empties into the right subclavian vein.
ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
wrinkles or folds.
Sacral Spinal Nerves
the last 5 pairs of the spinal nerves
wedge-shaped bone consisting of five fused vertebrae forming the posterior part of the pelvis, its base connects with the lowest lumbar vertebra and its tip with the coccyx
a vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions
a clear liquid secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands and mucous glands of the mouth that moistens the mouth and starts the digestion of starches.
released by the parotid salivary glands in saliva, begins the breakdown of carbohydrates.
a gland of the oral cavity that secretes saliva; — the three pairs of glands furnishing the saliva, the parotid, sublingual, and submaxillary.
either of two flat triangular bones one on each side of the shoulder in human beings, also known as the shoulder blades.
an abnormal lateral curve to the vertebral column
a sack of loose skin and fascia suspended from the lower anterior pelvic wall in which the testes reside.
oil glands of the skin connected to hair follicles
process of producing a substance within an organ and discharging it
depression in sphenoid bone that holds pituitary gland
thick fluid containing sperm and other secretions from the male reproductive system.
tightly coiled tubules of the testes in which spermatozoa are produced.
"Old" - Old age to death
a wall dividing two cavities
the watery portion of the blood after coagulation occurs.
an oval nodule of bone or fibrocartilage in a tendon superior to a bony surface. The patella is the largest one. Shaped like a sesame seed; an inconstant number of small, flat, round bones found in various tendons in which considerable pressure develops. Of these, only the patellas are usually counted in the 206 bones of the body.
Short (Lessor) Saphenous Vein (O & T)
originates from the medial side of the foot, and terminates by becoming a tributary to the superior portion of the femoral vein. (superficial)
Short Gastric Artery (T - be specific)
arise from the end of the splenic artery, and are distributed to the greater curvature of the stomach, anastomosing with branches of the left gastric and left gastroepiploic arteries.
Sigmoid Artery and Vein (O & T)
origin in the inferior mesenteric artery, terminates with the anastomosis to the left colic and superior rectal arteries, it supplies blood to the inferior descending colon and the sigmoid colon.
that portion of the large intestine that courses downward below the iliac crest. It is described as an S-shaped curve.
a recess, cavity, or channel, as one in bone or a dilated channel for venous blood.
Sinus (Paranasal sinus)
mucosa-lined air cavities in bones of the skull, communicating with the nasal cavity and including ethmoidal, frontal, maxillary, and sphenoidal sinuses.
a muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and so move parts of the skeleton; Striated - Voluntary.
entire skeletal framework of the head
the longest part of the alimentary canal where digestion is completed.
a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)
a broad flat muscle in the calf of the leg under the gastrocnemius muscle; posterior leg muscle
a tightly coiled and twisted structure, which lies against the posterior surface of the testes, known as the epididymis.
The male gamete
butterfly-shaped bone at the base of the skull, forms part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the orbit.
a circular muscle constricting an orifice; a muscle that principally closes an aperture.
space inside the spinal column containing the spinal cord
five groups of nerves - cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral
the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cord
Layer of Bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone
Stapes (or Stirrup)
one of the three small bones located in the ear ossicle.
a pancreatic enzyme that acts upon lipids or fats to produce glycerine and fatty acids
the flat bone that articulates with the clavicles and the first seven pairs of ribs, also known as the breastbone.
an enlarged and muscular sac-like organ of the alimentary canal, the principal organ of digestion.
a muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and so move parts of the skeleton; a muscle that is characterized by transverse stripes.
the smallest of the salivary glands of the mouth, it is almond-shaped, and lies within the floor of the mouth under the tongue. it has many opening along the sublingual fold under the tongue
a salivary gland of the mouth that is the size of a walnut and it lies beneath the mandible at the angle of the jaw
a ridge on the frontal bone above the eye socket.
pertaining to or situated near the surface.
Superficial Palmar (Volar) Arch (O)
formed predominantly by the ulnar artery, with a contribution from the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery.
higher than; situated above something else; higher; opposite of inferior.
Superior Nasal Concha
Ethmoid bone; higher scroll-shaped (turbinate) projections lateral to the nasal septum.
rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face upward
arched ridge just below the eyebrow.
located next to each kidney, the adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones and the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
are small bones located in sutures between certain cranial bones.
small organs in the dermis layer of the skin that release sweat
a line of fusion between two bones that are separate in early development; Greek for a growing together.
the study of ligaments and joints, articulations
pertaining to the lubricating fluid secreted by a membrane contained in diarthroses joint cavities, bursa and tendon sheaths.
a thin membrane in synovial (freely moving) joints that lines the point capsule and secretes synovial fluid.
organizations of varying numbers and kinds of organs so arranged that together they can perform complex functions for the body; organized groupings of related structures or organs that perform certain functions together.
circulation that supplies blood to all the body except to the lungs, begins with the left ventricle, and ends with the right atrium.
the cluster of bones in the foot between the tibia and fibula and the metatarsus, talus + calcaneus bone + cuboid bone + navicular bone + cuneiform bones + metatarsal bones + phalanges.
Temperature of Blood
38C or 100.4F
a thick bone forming the side of the human cranium and encasing the inner ear
The posterior projection that unites with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, together they form the zygomatic arch.
Ten (10) Vessels of the Cerebral Arterial Circle
R&L anterior cerebral arteries, anterior communicating artery, R&L internal carotid arteries, R&L posterior communicating arteries, R&L posterior cerebral arteries
A tendon in the back of the ankle and foot that attaches the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles to the calcaneus, also known as the Achilles tendon.
band or cord of fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone.
Tendon of Teres Major Muscle
forms the axillary space
the main, essential organs of the male reproductive system that are responsible for the production of spermatozoa, the male sex cells
a hormone, produced by the testes, which has to do with stimulating various bodily functions and the secondary sex characteristics.
The Vessel(s) associated with Right Atrium - List All
the superior vena cava (head and upper body) and inferior vena cava (legs and lower torso), and the right coronary artery.
The Vessel(s) associated with the Left Atrium - List All
The Vessel(s) associated with the Left Ventricle - List All
The Vessel(s) associated with the Right Ventricle- List All
Thoracic Lymph Duct (O) - Lymphatic System
ascending through the thoracic cavity in front of the spinal column and discharging lymph and chyle into the blood through the left subclavian vein.
Thoracic Spinal Nerves
the second of the 5 pairs of the spinal nerves (12 pairs)
A white blood cell.
largest cartilage of larynx; Adam's apple.
largest endocrine gland; located in the neck below the larynx and comprises bilateral lobes connected by an isthmus; secretes hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which require iodine for their production
hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells (65% iodine).
Latin for shin bone.
a group of similar cells that work together to perform a specific job in the body
muscular structure of the floor of the mouth covered by mucous membrane and held down by a band-like membrane known as the frenulum.
the study of the structure of the body with emphasis on superficial landmarks
the body excluding the head and neck and limbs
also known as the windpipe; a tube about 11cm long that extends from the larynx in the neck to the bronchi in the thoracic cavity.
the part of the colon that passes horizontally across the abdomen, below the liver, stomach, and spleen, and is above the small intestine.
Dividing lines on the surface of the lungs for the different lobes. Right lobe has two, left has one.
imaginary line drawn through the body to separate it into a upper and lower half
valve with three cusps; situated between the right atrium and the right ventricle; allows blood to pass from atrium to ventricle and closes to prevent back flow when the ventricle contracts
a cranial nerve that deals with the iris of the eye, maxillary and mandibular teeth, gums, and lip
a very large projection; example, greater trochanter of the femur.
a cranial nerve that deals with diagonal movements of the eyeball
top 7 pairs of ribs that attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilage
a pancreatic enzyme that acts upon proteins to produce amino acids.
a small, rounded projection; example rib tubercles.
a large, rounded projection; example, ischial tuberosity.
a covering or layer; one of the outer layers of a part, especially of a hollow organ or blood vessel.
Tunica Adventitia (or Externa)
the outer, fibroelastic coat of a blood vessel or other tubular structure.
Tunica Intima (or Interna)
the inner, serous coat of an artery.
the middle, usually muscular, coat of an artery or other tubular structure.
nasal bones, also known as nasal concha
Types of Membranes
1. Mucous / Mucosa 2. Synovial 3. Serous / Serosa; , permeable, semi-permeable, impermeable
Types of Muscle Tissue
Skeletal - Striated - Voluntary, Smooth - Non-striated - Involuntary, and Cardiac - (Heart only - Myocardium) - Involuntary.
the inner and longer of the two bones of the human forearm
Ulnar Artery (O & T)
arises from the bifurcation of the brachial artery and terminates with the creation of the volmar artery
Umbilical Artery (O & T) - Fetal Circulation
connects at the internal iliac (hypogastric) arteries to the placenta through the umbilical cord during fetal circulation
Umbilical Vein (O & T) - Fetal Circulation
connects the placenta to the fetus by connecting to the portal vein or the ductus venosus through the umbilical cord during fetal circulation.
blood type O
blood type AB
Unpaired Visceral Branches (3) of the Abdominal Aorta
celiac trunk/axis/artery, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric
Includes the arm, forearm, wrist and hand
the tubes leading from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
the tube leading from the urinary bladder to the external surface of the body.
a reservoir for urine awaiting periodic discharge from the body. The walls contain much smooth muscle and elastic fibers, which allow it to expand considerably in order to hold varying amounts of urine. The average capacity is about 700-800 milliliters (ml). When about 200-400 ml accumulate, receptors in the wall transmit impulses to the central nervous system and initiate the conscious desire to void urine.
composed of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
The fallopian tubes, also known as oviducts, are structures that serve as passageways for an ovum to reach the uterus. The fallopian tubes extend laterally out from the top of the uterus (about 4 inches), with their open ends lying adjacent to the ovaries.
the female organ, which serves as the point of development of a fetus during the period of gestation, the time from conception to birth. The uterus is often described as an inverted, pear-shaped organ, situated behind the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum. It is mainly a muscular organ, but it actually has three distinct layers which are the endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium.
also known as the birth canal, is the muscular passageway from the uterus to the outside of the body. In addition, it serves as the passageway for the entrance of the male penis during sexual intercourse, and permits the passage of menstrual flow out of the body.
a cranial nerve that deals with the sensory and motor nerve of the head, neck and torso
Valves in Veins
prevent back flow of blood in veins of limbs
The second section of the spermatic duct, called the ductus deferens, about 18 inches in length. It begins as a straightening out of the epididymis near the lower border of the testis, ascends up and out of the scrotum, enters the pelvic cavity, passes over the top of the urinary bladder, and ends up near the posterior inferior part of the bladder and delivers spermatozoa toward the last section of the spermatic duct, and eventually the urethra via peristaltic contractions in its muscular walls during the process of discharging semen (ejaculation).
A network of small blood vessels that supply large blood vessels
vessels carrying blood to the heart.
literally means accompany veins, refers to two or more veins accompanying an artery, they are usually present with the deep arteries of the extremities.
located toward the front of the body; anterior; of or near the belly; in humans, front or anterior; opposite of dorsal or posterior.
portion extending from the neck to the pelvis that contains organs of respiration, digestion, reproduction and elimination.
Ventricles of the Brain
canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid
a minute vein continuous with a capillary.
a narrow, worm-shaped tube connected to the cecum; worm-shaped tissue which extends from the lower portion of the cecum. Its mucous lining may become inflamed, a condition known as appendicitis.
Varnish-like, cheese-like substance on the fetus to protect it from the amniotic fluid.
26 small bones that make up your backbone
First branch arising from the subclavian artery in the chest and enters the cranium through the foramen magnum.
Vestibule of Vagina
the entrance way into the vagina, between the two labia minora.
pertaining to viscera, or the internal organs contained within a cavity.
Visceral Branches (3) of the Descending Thoracic Aorta
esophageal, bronchial, and pericardial.
the innermost of the two layers of the pericardium, serous membrane that adheres directly to the surface the heart
the state of being sticky or gummy; resistance offered by a fluid to change form or relative position of its particles due to attraction of molecules to each other.
Larynx, a cartilaginous structure at the top of the trachea, contains elastic vocal cords that are the source of the vocal tone in speech.
shaped like the blade of a plow, it forms part of the nasal septum along with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
The external female genitals, collectively.
Ways Muscles are Named
Size, Shape, Location, Number of heads, Direction of its fibers, Muscle action, and Points of attachment.
White Blood Cells
Blood cells (leukocytes) that help fight infection in a number of ways. Some produce antibodies, some engulf pathogens, some mark pathogens for destruction by other cells, larger in size but fewer in number than the red blood cells. Live about only 30 days.
trachea, a long tube that carries air from the mouth to the lungs
smallest of the three parts of the breastbone, articulates with the corpus sternum and the seventh rib.
pertaining to the zygoma, or cheekbone.
the slender arch formed by the temporal process of the cheekbone that bridges to the zygomatic process of the temporal bone.
the arch of bone beneath the eye that forms the prominence of the cheek.
Projection that articulates with malar (or zygomatic) bone.