Pathology Exam II: Neoplasia 1

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Summary questions for HO I

What is the etymology of neoplasia?

Neo = new, plasia = growth: new growth

What is the definition of neoplasia?

abnormal mass = increased nomal tissure = increased growth witout stimulous

Oncos

tumor

Tumor means

swelling

Cancer

malignant tumor

hyperplasia

increaed cell number

example of hyperplasia

increased breast tissue due to lactation

metaplasia

change in cell type

dysplasia

disordered cell growth aka preneoplastic

anaplasia

poor cell differentiation

neoplasia

excessive, autonomous growth

oncology

study and treatment of tumors

Through which stages is abnormal growth reversible?

hyper-dysplasia

Is neoplasia irreversible?

yes

Is metaplasia the same as dysplasia?

No. Metaplasia is a change due to a reaction and may not lead to dysplasia

What characterizes dysplasia?

Disordered, abnormaql arrangement

Can neoplasia be benign?

Yes. Ex=fibroadenoma

Describe anaplasia

no cell differentiation when there should be. Not a stage but a descrition

What are the primary characteristics of neoplastic cell growth?

1) Autonomous 2) Excessive 3) Disorganized

Why is neoplastic grown like the DEA?

They are a disorganized autonomous agency that has been known to use excessive force

Characterize the degrees of malignancy

1) Invasion 2) Metastasis

What is local invasion?

Spread of neoplastic cells into adjacent normal tissue, typically cell circumscribed or encapsulated

What is a metastasis?

Invasion of malignant tumor into adjacent (or further) tissues

What caracterizes malignancy?

1) Dissemination of malignant tumor cells away from site of origin usually via the vascular or lymphatic transport systems

What are the two types of malignancy?

1) Benign 2) Malignant

A tumor that is well differentiated and resembles the original tissue is likely to be

Benign

A tumor that is poorly differentiated and has spread to adjacent tissue is classified as

Malignant

What are tye cytological characteristics of a benign tumor?

1) Uniform cell population 2) Regularly shaped nuclei 3) Well developed cytoplasm 4) Regular distribution of chrmatin 5) Normal nucleoli

What are the cytological characteristics of a malignant tumor?

1) Heterogenous cell population w/ pleomorphism 2) Variable nuclei 3) Variable amounts of cytoplasm 3) High nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio 4) Hyperchromatic nuclei 5) Prominent multi nucleoli 6) Numerout mitoses

What is pleomorphism?

Many different shapes

What is a starburst mitosis?

Characteristic of malignancy

Are malignant tumors slow or fast growing compared to benign of the same type?

FAST

What is the suffix for a benign tumor?

-oma

What is the suffix for a malignant tumor

if epithelial: -carcinoma if mesenchymal: -sarcoma

-carcinomas originate from which cell type?

Epithelial

-sarcomas originate from which cell type?

Mesenchymal

Define sarcoma

Malignant neoplasm derived from mesenchymal tissue

Define carcinoma

Malignant neoplasm of epithelial origin

Define lymphoma

Malignant neoplasm of hematopoietic cell origin (eg B cells)

What is the prefix for adipose tissue?

lipo-

What is the prefix for cartilage?

chondr-/chondro-

What is the prefix for smooth muscle?

leiomy/leiomyo-

What is the prefix for striated muscle?

rhabdomy/rhabdomyo-

What is a benign squamous tumor called?

papilloma

What is a malignant squamous tumor called?

squamous cell carcinoma

Lipoma

benign adipose tumor

Liposarcoma

malignant adipose tumor

Chondroma

benign cartilage tumor

Chrondrosarcoma

malignant cartilage tumor

Leiomyoma

benign smooth muscle tissue tumor

Leiomyosarcoma

malignant smooth muscle tissue tumor

Rhabdomyoma

benign striated muscle tissue tumor

Rhabdomyosarcoma

malignant striated muscle tissue tumor

Papilloma

benign squamous tumor

squamous cell carcinoma

malignant squamous tumor

Melanom

MALIGNANT melanocarincoma (skin)

Seminoma

MALIGNANT testicular cell carcinoma

Lymphoma

MALIGNANT lymphosarcoma (mass forming)

Leukemia

MALIGNANT lymphosarcoma (bone marrow and circulating)

Hepatoma

MALIGNANT hepatocellular carcinoma

Why in nomenclature important?

Identification and designation assists in prognosis and treatement

What is the purpose of staging and grading?

Method of classifying the type of neoplasia and provide predictive outcome

Describe tumor staging

TNM: Used to evaluate the extend of tumor spread via standard criteria specific to different neoplasms

TNM: T =

size and local spread of primary tumor

TNM: N =

reginonal lymph node involvement

TNM: M =

distant metastases (YES/NO)

Which is a deeper invasion, T1 or T3?

T3 is a deeper invasion

What are the three terms used in grading (not prostate)?

Well, moderately or poorly differentiated

What are the 5 grades of prostate carcinoma?

1) small, uniform 2) medium 3) marked variation in glandular size w/ infiltration 4) markedly atypical cells with extensive infiltration 5) Sheets of undifferentiated cancer cells

What is the clinical manifestation of neoplasia?

High variable since neoplasia is not a single disease

What affects clinical manifestation of neoplasia?

Type of tumor, location, histological grade, clinical stage, ummune status of host, sensitivity of tumor cells to therapy

What are the local features of neoplasia?

1) Destruction of a vital structure 2) Obstruction 3) Ulceration 4) Bleeding

Can a benign tumor be lethal?

Yes. Ex= pituitary adenoma causes increased intercranial pressure and death

What is a pathologic fracture?

Break in bone through tumor site

What are the systemic features of neoplasia (usually from malignant processes)

1) Anorexia 2) Weight Loss 3) Fever 4) Anemia 5) Decreased resistance to infection 6) Cachexia

What is cachexia

Extreme wasting, malnutrition, malaise, and weakness

What are paraneoplastic syndromes?

Symptom complexes not readily explained by either local or distance spread of the tumor. Ex-production of humoral product by tumor or production of a product not originally made by that tissue type

Explain how small cell carcinoma of the lung can lead to Cushing syndrome

The CA produces ACTH, uncharacteristic of lung tissue, which leads to uncontrolled release of cortisol -> Cushing's

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