Psych: Conceptualizing Emotions
|Three ways Emotions can be measured:|| 1) self-reports |
2) physiological measures (brain activity, heart rate, eye dilation, perspiration)
3) behavioral observations
|Four components of emotions||Cognitive component, behavioral component, arousal, and feelings|
|Folk Psychology explanation VS. the James-Lange Theory of Emotion||-Folk Psychology explanation: first, you experience the stimulus, then you generate emotion, then you respond.|
-James-Lange Theory of Emotion: first you experience a stimulus, you react, then you generate your emotion
-difference: folk explanation that you react a certain way because you feel a certain emotion. james-lange claims that you react first then you generate emotion based on your reaction.
|Folk Psychology explanation example||you see a bear (stimulus), you feel fear (generate emotion), then you run (you react)|
|James-Lange Theory of Emotion example||you see a bear (stimulus), you run (you react), then you feel fear (you generate emotion)|
|Evidences in favor and Evidences against James-Lange Theory of Emotion|| -Evidence in favor: experience of bodily response (run from bear) can heighten emotional response ("fear")|
-Evidence against: patients with certain spinal cord injuries report that they can feel, but their bodies don't experience any feedback. (feeling attraction, but not aroused)
|Revised James Theory||You experience stimulus, you recognize the situation (cerebral cortex), then you react (physiological reactions), then you feel emotions.|
|Revised James Theory example||you see a bear (stimulus), you perceived danger (cerebral cortex), you run (physiological reactions), then you feel "fear" (generate emotion).|
|The Cannon-Baird Theory of Emotion||You simultaneously experience an emotion and a physiological response.|
-one stimulus generate BOTH emotions and physiological reactions at the SAME TIME.
-as opposed to Folk theory where you feel emotion then respond, and opposed to James Lange theory (including the revised version) where you react first before generating an emotion.
|The Schacter-Singer Two-Factor Theory of Emotion||-Emotions arise from a multi-part process. |
-determine emotions from recognition of situation AND our behavioral reactions.
-determined the strength of emotions from our physiological reactions (automatic responses, which derived from cognitive state and experience)
-emphasized cognitive mechanism: interpretation of both physiological and perceptual info w/ respect to existing beliefs and memory content
-Stimulus --> environmental cues, physiological (automatic) reactions, behavioral reactions --> cerebral cortex (memory) --> emotions
|According to Schacter-Singer Two-Factor Theory of Emotion, how does an individual interpret physiological responses?||individual interpret physiological responses in terms of stimuli, context, cognitive state, and experience.|
|According to Schacter-Singer Theory, emotional experience depends upon__?||emotional experience depends upon cognitive interpretation (state, experience, context)|
|Specific criteria: must be met for an emotion to be "basic"|| that basic emotion|
-should be similar across cultures (universal)
-should have its own biological signature (facial expression)
-should emerge early in life (before one has had much experience)
|Six "basic emotions"||Joy, surprise, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust|