archduke of Austria-Hungary, Ferdinand
the spark for world war I was provided when Gavrilo Princip assassinated?
the term for the idea that people with the same ethnic origins, language, and political ideals had the right to form sovereign states was?
the nationalistic aspirations of subject minorities was most threatening to a state such as?
oceans (naval race), east/southwest Africa
which of the following was not an important area of competition and conflict between England and Germany in the years leading up to World War I?
Italys policy of aggrandizement at the expense of the Ottoman empire/Italy's rivalry with Austria-Hungary in the Balkans
the Triple Alliance as threatened from the very beginning by?
amounted to a veritable celebration of offensive maneuvers- "attack" undertaken always and everywhere
Plan XVII was?
the military plan that called for an invasion of France through Belgium was called the?
declaration of war on Serbia
the decision of Nicholas II to mobilize Russia's armed forces following the Austro-Hungarian?
barbed wire, new weapons-poisonous gas (mustard gas), machine gun, tanks, airplanes, submarine, no-mans-land
which of the following was not a characteristic of the new total war of World War I?
the World War I poet who considered Horace's line that, "It is sweet and proper to die for one's country," to be an "old Lie" was?
the took the mens work during the war- gained voting rights in some countries after war, discouraged patriarchal family system in Russia/China
what effect did World War I have on the status of women?
gov'ts censored bad news and vilified the enemy through propaganda campaigns
the experience of Joseph Caillaux during World War I demonstrated that?
IS NOT: The German invasion of neutral Belgium was such a profound breech of international law
which of the following is not an explanation of the expansion of World War I to Asia, Africa, and the Pacific?
Togoland, the Cameroons, German Southwest Africa, German East Africa
which of the following was a German African colony conquered by the Allies in World War I?
was a disaster-Allied soldiers were pinned on the beaches by the Turkish.
led to a weakening of imperial ties and paved the way for emerging national identities
the battle of Gallipoli?
British intelligence services as a military advisor among the Arabs in revolt against Turkish rule
to lead the bedouins of Arabia against Ottoman rule, T.E. Lawrence worked with?
was an unplanned and incomplete affair-Russia ceased to be a monarchy
the February Revolution of 1917?
soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies surfaced all over Russia- failed to satisfy popular demands for an end to war/for land reform
the main reason for the failure of the provisional government in Russia in 1917 was?
Lenin viewed the industrial working class as incapable of developing the proper revolutionary consciousness that would lead to effective political action
the main difference between the philosophies of Marx and Lenin was?
ended Russia's involvement in the Great War- gave Germans possession of 1/3 Russia's territory and 1/4 population
the Treaty of Brest Litovsk?
Germany's resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in February 1917
the key factor in the United State's decision to enter World War I was?
left more than 20 million dead and was helped spread by wartime traffic on land/sea
the Influenza Pandemic of 1918?
the Allies didnt permit representatives of the Central Powers to participate
one of the major problems of the Paris peace negotiations that led to the Treaty of Versailles was?
in return for the creation of the League of Nations
Woodrow Wilson agreed to many harsh stipulations to the Treaty of Versailles?
unsuccessful because they didnt make it past the French troops at the fortress of Verdun; French counted 315k dead& German counted 280K
the massive German assault on the western front in 1916 was?
a battle fought to relieve the pressure on Verdun by the British and by November they had gained a few thousand yards at the cost of 420,000 casualties
-a English assault in 1916 that gained a few thousand yards. (from bolins test)
the Somme was?
the writer whose "Decline of the West" proposed that European society had entered the final stage of its existence was?
attacked liberal Christian theology that embraced the idea of progress
in Karl Barth's "Epistle to the ROmans", he?
Who wrote, "Man's historical experience has been one of steady failure, and there are no grounds for supposing it will be ever anything else"?
came under attack, especially science and technology.
in the years after World War I, the idea of progress?
the masses were destined to destroy the highest achievements of Western Society
in Jose Ortega y Gaset's "Revolt of the Masses", he points out that?
the most influential economist of the 20th century- fundamental cause of depression was not excessive supply, but inadequate demand
John Maynard Keynes?
Einstein's theory of special relativity
the notion that space and time are relative to the person measuring them was first articulated in?
it is impossible to specify simultaneously the position and velocity of a subatomic particle
in a purely scientific sense, the uncertainty principle proposes that?
it carried broader philosophical ramifications-called into question established notions of truth/violated law of cause and effect
Discoveries in physics added to the anxiety of the 1920s and 1930s because?
heightened the aversion to visual realism- painters began to think of canvas not as a reproduction of reality, but as an end in itself
the spread of photography?
was: expressionists, cubists, abstractionists, dadaists, surrealists
which of the following groups was not one of the new artistic movements of the 20th century?
European artists to take similar liberties with realism
the deliberate violation of perspective by Japanese artists influenced?
Picasso-African art forms, Gauguin-Tahiti, Ludwig Mies von der Rohe-modern architecture
which of the following was not an accurate match between artist/ artistic influence?
all artists were acknowledged to have a right to their own reality, and accepted standards of "good/bad" art disappeared
one of the biggest results of the artistic experimentation of the 1920s and 1930s was that?
featured simplicity of shape/extensive use of glass and always embodied that form must follow function
the work of Walter Gropius?
an institution that brought together architects, designers, and painters from several countries
the term Bauhaus is associated with?
overproduction and falling prices
a troubling economic problem in the 1920s was the depressed state of agriculture caused by?
a wave of panic selling on the New York Stock Exchange caused stock prices to plummet
on Black Thursday, 24 October 1929?
experienced some economic difficulties- especially the ones who relied on imports from the US
During the Great Depression, most nations?
urged governments to play an active role and stimulate the economy by increasing the money supply
in response to the Great Depression, economist John Maynard Keynes?
was: legislation to prevent the collapse of banking system, provide jobs, give workers their rights to organize/bargain, guarantee minimum wages, provide social security at an old age
which of the following was not one of the chief actions of Roosevelt's New Deal?
Bolsheviks and Whites (Red and whites)
the Russian Civil War that broke out after the revolution was between?
a policy of hasty and unplanned nationalization that the new Russian rulers embarked on- annulled private property, assumed control of banks, etc.
temporarily restored the market economy and some private enterprise to Russia
Lenin's New Economic Policy of 1921?
This individual believed in a philosophy of promoting communism primarily in the Soviet Union rather than trying to export the revolution to other nations?
replaced the NEP with a plan for rapid economic development- aims were to transform the USSR from a predominantly agricultural country to a leading industrial power
the First Five-Year Plan?
deprived German Jews of their citizenship and prohibited marriage between Jews and other Germans
the 1935, Nuremberg Laws?
the "night of broken glass"-the Nazi's arranged for the destruction of Jewish stores, synagogues, etc
the Kristallnacht was?
India and China
in the decades following World War I, nationalism was most powerful in Asia in the regions of?
Indian National Congress
the most influential organization dedicated to the end of British rule in India was?
gave India the institutions of a self-governing state. allowed for the establishment of autonomous legislative bodies in the provinces of British India
the India Act of 1937?
Muslims constituted the majority of indebted tenant farmers, who found themselves increasingly unable to pay rents/debts. Landlords=mainly Hindus
the Great Depression aggravated the tense situation between Muslims and Hindus in India in part because..?
a fiery Indian nationalist who galvanized public support for India's independence movement
Bal Gangadhar Tilak was?
all classes of Chinese protested against foreign, especially Japanese, interference
the May Fourth Movement?
the former teacher and librarian that became the leader of the Chinese communist movement was?
DID: elimination of special privileges for foreigners, national reunification, economic development, democratic republic government based on universal suffrage
DID NOT:. the establishment of a communist, totalitarian government.
Sun Yatsen's plan for China included all of the following except?
was: nationalists controlled only part of china-warlords took remainder, early 1930s communist revolution was still major threat, Guomindang faced increasing japanese aggression
the nationalist government of China was challenged by all of the following except?
troops and personnel of the Red Army and CCP walked 10,000 kilometers to a remote area of Shaanxi province and established headquarters at Yan'an
the Long March?
a form of Marxist-Leninism grounded in the conviction that peasants rather than urban proletarians were the foundation of a successful revolution
a giant economic slump- economic contraction set the stage for social unrest and radical politics
the Great Depression led Japan to?
(Japanese blew up some rail and accused the Chinese of doing it)- became the pretext for war between Japanese and Chinese troops
the Mukden incident?
puppet state that Japan created-but really they had absorbed Manchuria into its empire
Manchukuo was the?
many belligerents were colonial powers who ruled over africa
Africans were participants in World War I because?
All of the following African colonies were compelled by European colonial powers to participate in World War I except?
1. wanted to make sure that the colonized paid for the institutions (bureaucracies, judiciary, police, etc) that kept them in subjugation 2. developed export-oriented economies characterized by the exchange of unprocessed raw materials for manufactured goods from abroad
the two economic goals pursued by European colonial powers in Africa following World War I were?
the unification of all people of African descent into a single African state
Pan-Africanism is an idea that advocated?
was a young Marxist intellectual who felt concern for the poor and Indias who were 50% of Peru's populations. Established the Socialist Party of Peru
Jose Carlos Mariategui?
Dollar Diplomacy- "dollars for bullets", Good Neighbor Policy
which of the following are US policies towards Latin America?
This Mexican president nationalized his country's oil industry, thus posing a challenge to the United States policy of non-intervention in Latin American affairs?
kept alive by moving inland to Chongquin; Chinese communists carried on guerrilla operations against the Japanese invaders
the Guomindang during World War II was?
the German and Italian fascists used which war as an excuse to intervene and gain valuable military experience?
the weakness of the League of Nations was revealed in its inability to take any substantial action in response to the Italian invasion of?
in 1938, Germany sent troops into what country and forced its leaders to accept the "Anschluss"?
Neville Chamberlain-Britains prime minister
in the wake of the Munich Conference, what leader proposed that the meeting had ensured "peace in our time"?
German control of western Poland and Lithuania while the Soviet Union gained a free hand in the territories of eastern Poland, etc
while the Nazi-Soviet Pact was on the surface a nonaggression treaty, it had secret stipulations that spelled out?
German invasion of Poland unannounced on 1 September 1939
the European part of World War II began with the?
solely through air attacks- "The Blitz"
in the Battle of Britain the Germans hoped to defeat the English?
the code name for the June invasion of the Soviet Union- took Red Army by surprise. By Dec. 1941- Germans had captured Russian heartland
Operation Barbarossa was?
Hitler's comment "You only have to kick in the door, and the whole rotten structure will come down" was a reference to which of the following powers?
the United States
by December 1941, the Soviets gained two new allies in their struggle to defeat the German invasion of their country: "General Winter" and?
to destroy American naval capacity in the Pacific and clear the way for the conquest of southeast Asia and the creation of a defensive Japanese perimeter that could defend the homeland
the Japanese goal in the bombing of Pearl Harbor was?
the entry of the Soviet Union and the United States into the war
the key to the Allied victories in Europe and Asia was?
when the Soviets won the battle for Stalingrad; pushed the German invaders out of Russian territory
the first large-scaled defeat for Germans forces in World War II was?
on 6 June 1944 (d-day) overwhelmed the Germans & changed the war towards Allies winning
the Normandy invasion?
a code-breaking operation known as Magic, which enabled a cryptographer monitoring Japanese radio frequencies to discover the plan to attack Midway
the US secret weapon in the Pacific campaign was?
kamikaze-pilots who volunteered to be suicide pilots
in the Battle of Okinawa the Japanese introduced?
the Japanese flew 1900 kamikaze missions and killed more than 5000 US soldiers
During the Battle of Okinawa..?
when the US used the atomic bomb against Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Soviet Union declared war on Japan
the Japanese finally surrendered in August 1945?
the Nazis eliminated the entire village of Lidice as punishment
after the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich?
15 leading Nazi bureaucrats gathered to discuss the final solution-agreed to evacuate all Jews from europe to camps in Poland
at the Wannsee Conference?
Raphael Lemkin- a refugee Polish-JEwish lawyer living in the US
the main who coined the term "genocide" was?
a national, ethnic, racial or religious group
the term "genocide" was coined to refer to the systematic killings of which of the following?
that the US/Britain was letting the Soviets get beat by the Germans on purpose and not grabbing the "nose" of the alligator fast enough
one of the biggest arguments among the Allies in World War II was?
the Marshall Plan was?
proposed to rebuild European economies through cooperation and capitalism to forestall communist influence in devastated nations
the Soviet Union counterpart to the Marshall plan that offered an alternative by offering increased trade. "Council for Mutual Economic Assistance"
the final version of the UN charter was hammered out
at a meeting of 50 nations at San Francisco in 1945..?
instituting a communist system of government
all of the following constitute steps taken by Benito Mussolini to consolidate power except?
coalesced to form the Federal Republic of Germany ( west germany)
In the wake of the Berlin Blockade and Airlift, the US, British, and french zones of occupation in western germany?
the partitioning of korea along the 38 parallel into Soviet and US zone- Korean Peninsula would remain in a state of suspended strife because of the failure to conclude a peace treaty
the Korean War resulted in?
accepted the "domino theory"-rationalized worldwide US intervention on the assumption that if one country became communist, neighboring ones would collapse, etc, none would remain standing
US president Dwight Eisenhower ?
failed to overthrow Castro and his supporters/Diminished US prestige, especially in Latin America/Strengthened castro's position in cuba
the bay of Pigs invasion?
cuban missile crisis
this cold war event was teh closest that the USSR and the US came to war with one another?
the unhappiness of women who presumably enjoyed the best life the US could offer
Betty Friedan, in her book The Feminine Mystique, wrote about ?
the black nationalist who believed that US blacks should seek repatriation in Africa was?
"France couldn't regain great power status if it depended on US military protection"- pursued independence policies
the French president Charles de Gaulle?
In 1963, what country rejected a partial nuclear test ban treaty that had been signed by the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and the United States?
disengagement from the US dominated NATO and the development of an independent nuclear strike force
the foreign policy of Charles de Gaulle focused on?
What country did the Soviet Union expel from the Soviet bloc in 1948 because of its insistence on following an independent course in foreign affairs?
communist leader who gained power as nationalist leader in Hungary and announced country's neutrality and withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact
reserved the right to invade any socialist country that was deemed to be threatened by internal or external elements.."hostile to socialism"-justified Soviets invasion of Czechoslovakia
the Brezhnev Doctrine?
brought an end to the long period of imperialist intrusion in China and spawned a close relationship between the world's largest and most powerful socialist states- set out to imitate Soviet socialism
upon its creation in 1949, the People's Republic of China?
too modest with their aid programs and too many strings attached to them
by the mid -1960s, the Chinese were accusing the Soviets of being?
The government of Muhammad Najibullah, who had been put in place in Afghanistan back in 1986, was finally overthrown in 1996 by?
Soviets were unable to connect communism with nationalism in eastern Europe which left communist regimes vulnerable throughout eastern/ central Europe &
Soviet imposed governments lacked legitimacy - regimes never became firmly established
Which of the following statements reflects the relationship between the Soviet Union and eastern Europe at the end of World War II?
the Russian leader who brought massive reform to the Soviet Union beginning in 1985 was?
at the time he was forced out of office in 1989, the longest surviving communist leader was?
Chechoslovakia- swept communists out of office and restored democracy
the "velvet revolution" brought change to?
dictator in Romania who refused reforms and repressed demonstrations; ended up dead in uprising
NIcolae Ceausescu was?
The East German leader who rejected Gorbachev's reforms and clung to the traditional Soviet pattern was?
reforms focused on ailing economy. committed himself to restructuring of USSR and unilateral withdrawal from cold war; dismantled Brezhnev Doctrine
uskorenie- tried to shock economy out of coma;didnt work
Mikhail Gorbachev tried to implement a policy of "acceleration," or?
"restructuring"-pushed economic decentralization
Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of perestroika referred to?
When Mikhail Gorbachev discussed the opening of Soviet society to public criticism and admission of past mistakes, he used the term?
the Baltics- estonians, latvians, lithuanians
the first of the Soviet republics to declare independence?
At the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union, the largest of the republics, the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, was headed by?
who finally dismantled the soviet communist party and pushed the country toward free market reforms?
was dangerous because it emphasized religious over national identity
both Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru felt that communalism...?
Hindus and Muslims
In 1946, six thousand people died in the Great Calcutta Killing in a confrontation between?
the province of Kashmir-claimed by both states
War broke out between India and Pakistan in 1947 over?
where leaders of African/Asian countries first discussed nonalignment- talked about "the third path" ( not having to choose US or USSR)
the Bandung Conference?
fashioned a compelling position for newly independent nations caught in the cold war and in the super power tug of war ??
in regard to international affairs, Nehru?
In 1965, which U.S. president ordered a bombing campaign against North Vietnam and sent American ground troops to bolster the South Vietnam army?
the European country that served as the mandate power in Palestine after World War I was?
british government committed itself to the support of a homeland for Jews in Palestine
in the Balfour Declaration of 1917?
left Nasser in a dominant position in the Arab world- used the money collected from the canal to finance construction of a massive dam of the Nile River at Aswan
the Suez Canal crisis of 1956?
they had not consulted with the United States
the English and French were forced to withdraw from controlling the Suez Canal during the crisis in 1956 because?
urged the use of violence against colonial oppressors as a means of overcoming the racist degradation experienced by peoples outside the Soviet-US Sphere
in the "Wretched of the Earth", Frantz Fanon?
an African poet who tried to turn Africans away from European culture/colonial rule
Bernard Dadie was?
The leader of the first sub-Saharan African nation to gain independence, and the most important nationalist leader in Africa, was?
came to power after Mao's death and moderated Mao's commitment to Chinese self-sufficiency and isolation and engineered China's entry into the international financial trading system
The Indian leader who attempted to control the massive population growth in India by ordering involuntary sterilization was?
The Egyptian leader who both masterminded the surprise Yom Kippur attack on Israel and facilitated the peace process with the Israelis was?
Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin
Peace treaties that advanced the notion of limited Palestinian self-rule were signed in 1993 and 1995 by Yasser Arafat and?
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
the US-backed government of Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi in Iran was overthrown in 1979 by?
What country has the Institutional Revolutionary Party ruled for much of the twentieth century?
Juan Perón, a nationalistic militarist who was nonetheless popular with the poor, ruled ?
military rule took a sinister turn when dictators approved the creation of death squads that fought a "dirty war" against suspected suversives
Argentina, in the late 1970s and early 1980s?
The situation wherein national boundaries were artificial conveniences that did not correspond to economic or ethnic divisions was most common in?
in 1948, the system of apartheid was put into place by the Afrikaner National Party in?
Zaire (later renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo)
Mobutu Sese Seko was the dictatorial leader of?
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) started with 23 noncommunist nations in 1947, and by 1994 was up to how many nations?
WTO- World Trade Organization
which of these organizations has developed into a forum for settling international trade disputes?
was: hong kong, singapore, south korea, taiwan
which of the following was not one of the "little tigers"?
one of the earliest/most successful alliances (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries); established in 1960 by oil producing states
"age of success"
because of the rise of communication technology, observers have labeled today's era the?
has critics; "mass media is a vehicle for cultural imperialism"/ english became dominant language around globe
the new age of global interconnectedness?
cut emissions blamed for global warming- CO2 and other dangerous gases
the 1997 agreement at Kyoto was aimed at controlling which of the following threats to the world's environment?
south/southeast Asia; especially India
the areas of the world where child labor is most prominent are?
september 11- attack of the twin towers
the United states' "war on terror" began in the wake of which of the following events?
failed to achieve ratification before the 1982 deadline- never materialized
the Equal Rights Amendment in the United States?
socialist or communist societies- ex: USSR, Cuba, China
the only countries that transformed their legal systems to ensure basic equality for women were?
disappearance of a large number of girls
one suspected consequence of China's one-child family rule is?
in 1996 the largest urban area in the world, with a total population of around 27 million, was?
Zimmerman Note, Treaty of Versailles, Stock Market Crash, New Deal
which of the following sets is listed in correct chronological order?
Poland, Lithuania, Hungary
Which of the following sets is a correct list of new nations created by the Treaty of Versailles?