Micro Bio Test 3

Created by tndaugherty 

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1. The process by which you can destroy all viable organisms completely is called .......
A. Disinfection
B. Sterilization
C. Antisepsis
D. Sanitization

B

2. "Humoral immune response" is same as ..........
A. Antibody-mediated immune response
B. Cell-mediated immune response
C. Antigen- mediated immune response
D. None of above

A

3. The process of using a cleansing technique to mechanically remove microorganisms to reduce contamination is called ..............
A. Disinfection
B. Sterilization
C. Antisepsis
D. Sanitization

D

4. The use of chemical agents directly on exposed body surfaces to destroy or inhibit pathogens is
A. Disinfection
B. Sterilization
C. Antisepsis
D. Sanitization

C

5. Which of the following factors will influence the action of microbial agents?
A. Mode and dosage of the agent
B. The kind of microorganisms
C. Temperature and pH
D. All of the above will influence the action

D

6. Vials of microorganisms that undergo the freeze-drying process called ........... will remain preserved and viable for years.
A. Desiccation
B. Flash freeze
C. Lyophilization
D. Pasteurization

C

7. .............. is a control method that removes microorganisms rather than inhibiting or killing them.
A. Boiling
B. Sterilization
C. Radiation
D. Filtration

D

8. Why does sometimes antimicrobial treatment fail?
A. Inability of drug to diffuse into body compartment where pathogen is located
B. A few resistant cells in culture did not appear in the sensitivity test
C. An infection caused by more than one pathogen, some of which are resistant to drug
D. All of above

D

9. The chemical agent that produces highly reactive hydroxyl-free radicals and also decomposes to O2 gas is
A. Hydrogen peroxide
B. Cationic detergents
C. Chlorhexidine
D. Iodophors

A

10. Important characteristics of antimicrobial drugs include
A. Stable and soluble in body tissues and fluids
B. High toxicity against microbial cells
C. Do not cause serious side effects in humans
D. All of the choices are correct

D

11. There are fewer antifungal, antiprotozoan and antihelminth drugs compared to antibacterial drugs because fungi, protozoa and helminths
A. Do not cause many human infections
B. Are not affected by antimicrobials
C. Are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity is difficult
D. Are parasites found inside human cells

C

12. Which of the following is not a mode of action of antivirals?
A. Block transcription and translation
B. Inhibit DNA synthesis
C. Block maturation
D. Bond to ergosterol in the cell membrane

D

13. The cellular basis for bacterial resistance to antimicrobials include
A. Bacterial chromosomal mutations
B. Synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure
C. Alteration of drug receptors on cell targets
D. All of the choices are correct

D

14. Each of the following result in drug resistance except
A. Drug pumped out of the cell
B. Drug used as a nutrient by the cell
C. Drug binding site altered
D. Drug blocked from entering cell

B

15. Acquired specific immunity involves the response of
A. B and T lymphocytes
B. Skin barriers
C. Lysozyme
D. Mucus membranes

A

16. The molecular fragment on an antigen molecule that a lymphocyte recognizes and responds to is called a/an
A. Epitope
B. Hapten
C. Antigen binding site
D. None of the choices are correct

A

17. Which process involves antibodies cross-linking cells or particles into large aggregates?
A. Neutralization
B. Opsonization
C. Agglutination
D. Anamnestic response

C

18. The immunoglobulin class that has a dimer form found in mucus, saliva, colostrum and other body secretions is
A. IgA
B. IgD
C. IgE
D. IgG

A

19. Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?
A. Helper T cells
B. Cytotoxic T cells
C. Delayed hypersensitivity T cells
D. Natural killer (NK) cells

D

20. Cytotoxic T cells
A. Are not activated by antigens
B. Lack specificity for antigen
C. Secrete some chemicals that damage target cells
D. All of the choices are correct

C

21. The beauty of specific immunity is the production of .......... that provides long-lasting protection
A. Antibodies
B. T helper cells
C. Memory cells
D. Phagocytotic cells

C

22. An example of artificial passive immunity would be
A. Chickenpox infection is followed by lifelong immunity
B. Chickenpox vaccine triggers extended immunity to chickenpox
C. Giving a person immune serum globulins to chickenpox virus after exposure to the disease
D. None of the choices are correct

C

23. Components of the first line of defense include all the following except
A. The tough cell sheet of the upper epidermis of the skin
B. Nasal hairs
C. Flushing action of urine
D. Phagocytic white blood cells

D

24.The chemical found in tears and saliva that hydrolyzes the peptidoglycan in certain bacterial cell walls is
A. Lactic acid
B. Hydrochloric acid
C. Lysozyme
D. Histamine

C

25. This body region is protected by fatty acids, acidic pH, lactic acid and a tough cell barrier with its own normal biota
A. Skin
B. Respiratory tract
C. Digestive tract
D. Urinary tract

A

26. What structures are found along lymphatic vessels and are heavily clustered in the armpit, groin and neck?
A. Lymph nodes
B. Thymus
C. Spleen
D. Tonsils

A

27. Three signs and symptoms of inflammation include all the following except
A. Redness
B. Swelling
C. Pain
D. Chills

D

28. Which of the following is not a chief function of inflammation?
A. Start tissue repair
B. Destroy microbes
C. Block further invasion
D. To cause a fever

D

29.Each of the following are benefits of fever except
A. It stimulates hematopoiesis
B. It stimulates liver and spleen to sequester iron and zinc
C. It increases phagocytosis
D. It increases metabolism

A

30. Broad-spectrum drugs that disrupt the body's normal flora often cause
A. Nephrotoxicity
B. Superinfections
C. Allergic reactions
D. Drug toxicity

B

31. Inflammation is part of the ........... line of our defense system.
A. First
B. Second
C. Third
D. Fourth

B

32. Cold sterilization is another term for
A. Sterilization with non-ionizing radiation
B. Incineration
C. Freezing
D. Sterilization with ionizing radiation

D

33. There are always some risks associated with vaccines.
A. True
B. False

A

34. Food and dust do not contain antigenic particles.
A. True
B. False

B

35. Stomach is sterile due to the low pH.
A. True
B. False

B

36. Why do bladder infections are more common in women?
A. Because urethra in women is shorter than men
B. Because bladder is a bit larger in women than men
C. There is no difference in rate of bladder infections between men and women
D. None of above

A

37. .............. system screens body tissues for antigens
A. Circulatory
B. Respiratory
C. Lymphatic
D. Digestive

C

38. Which of the following is not an antibody?
A. A
B. B
C. E
D. G

B

39. There are several drugs function by blocking DNA replication or RNA transcription.
A. True
B. False

A

40. Where are lymphocytes produced?
A. Spleen
B. Bone marrow
C. Liver
D. Thymus

B

41. The most important antimicrobial protein that acts as an antiviral drug is
A. Antigen
B. Antibody
C. Interferon
D. None of above

C

42. Selective toxicity is almost impossible to achieve with antiviral drugs because a single metabolic system is responsible for well-being of virus and host.
A. True
B. False

A

43. Proteins that act as intercellular signals are
A. Interferons
B. Complements
C. Antibodies
D. Cytokines

D

44. Which type of lymphocyte does not utilize specific antigens?
A. B
B. T
C. NK
D. None of above

C

45. High physical activity increases immunity.
A. True
B. False

B

46. Excess iron increases reproduction of microbes.
A. True
B. False

A

47. Which of the following is not a route of immunization?
A. Oral
B. Intramuscular
C. Intravenous
D. All of above are route of immunization

D

48. Which of the following types of vaccine produce a stronger immune response?
A. Toxoid
B. Attenuated
C. Killed
D. All of above

B

49. High fever could be dangerous for our cells because of its ability to destroy nucleic acids.
A. True
B. False

B

50. Pathogen can acquire resistance to more than one drug at a time.
A. True
B. False

A

51. The most common type pf antibody in our body is
A. A
B. G
C. E
D. M

B

52. Class of a produced antibody depends on
A. Type of foreign antigen
B. Portal of entry
C. Antibody function needed
D. All of above

D

53. The structure of an antibody molecule is composed of .......... Chains.
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

D

54. Passive immunity diminishes fast through time.
A. True
B. False

A

55. Serum used for passive immunizations is called
A. Antigen
B. Antibody
C. Antiserum
D. None of above

C

56. T lymphocytes move to thymus in order to develop more before being transferred to blood.
A. True
B. False

A

57. A microbe can have more than one antigen.
A. True
B. False

A

58. Is there any metal incorporated in nowadays vaccines?
A. Yes
B. No

B

59. What organ/system is more sensitive to drug toxicity?
A. Kidney
B. Liver
C. Nerves
D. All of above

D

60. Toxoid vaccines can be only used against viruses.
A. True
B. False

B

61. Adjuvants are usually added to ............. vaccines.
A. Attenuated
B. Inactivated
C. Both
D. None

B

62. Lymph is actually the liquid part of blood that is continuously filtered into lymphatic vessels.
A. True
B. False

A

63. Inhibition of metabolic pathways in pathogens can be achieved when differences exist between metabolic processes of pathogen and host.
A. True
B. False

A

64. One problem associated with attenuated vaccines is the need of high vaccine dosage or multiple dosages.
A. True
B. False

B

65. Disinfection is not same as sterilization.
A. True
B. False

A

66. High and multiple vaccine doses may produce allergic reactions.
A. True
B. False

A

67. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis is achieved by
A. Preventing cross-linkage of NAM subunits
B. Producing holes in cell wall
C. Both
D. None

A

68. Young individuals have stronger immune system than others.
A. True
B. False

B

69. Pregnant women should not receive any type of vaccine.
A. True
B. False

B

70. One important problem with attenuated vaccines is that attenuated microbes may retain enough virulence to cause disease, especially in immunosuppressed individuals.
A. True
B. False

A

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