APUSH Chapter 34

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London-Economic Conference

-summer 1933
-agenda was to organize a coordinated international attack on global depression while stabilizing values of nations' currencies and
-america withdrew showing foreign policy was subordinate to domestic economic recovery

Tydings-McDuffle Act 1934

-provided for the independece of Philippines after 12 years of political/economic tutelage (by 1946)
-The US relinquished army bases but not naval

USSR Recognition

-in 1933
-motivated by hope for trade and desire to bolster USSR as counterweight to threat of German and Japanese
-opposed by anti communist conservatives and Roman Catholics

Good Neighbor Policy

-FDR's attempt to create good relations with Latin America
-nullified the Roosevelt Corollary
- tested when oil properties were seized in Mexico

***

Pan-American Conference

-Montevideo, Uruguay
-US pledged to never again intervene in internal affairs of Latin American country
-repudiated Monroe Doctrine
-Marines left Haiti and Cuba was released from Platt Amendment (still naval base at Guantanamo) and US relaxed grip on Panama

Reciprocal Trade Agreements Ac

(1934)
-act designed to raise American exports
-aimed at both relief and recovery
-led by Cordell Hull
-helped reverse the high-tariff policy
-president had power to reduce US tariffs by 50% for nations that reciprocated with comparable reductions for US imports

Cordell Hull

-Secretary of State during FDR's presidency
-believed in reciprocal trade policy, low tariff, and good neighborism
-led passage of the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934

Rome-Berlin Axis

-1936 Hitler and Mussolini allied together
-they were both allied with Japan
-fought against the Allies in World War II.

Johnson Debt Default Act

-prevented debt-dodging nations from borrowing further in the US
1934

Nye Committee

-investigated arms manufacturers/bankers of WWI claiming they caused America's entry into WWI because they would make money out of it
-public opinion spurred congress to pass neutrality acts

Neutrality Acts

-stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect
-no American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent

Quarantine Speech

-FDR's speech in 1937 in Chicago
-called for "positive endeavors" to "quarantine" aggressors by economic embargoes
-opposed by isolationists who feared this would lead to war

Panay Incident

-Japanese sank American gunboat (Panay) in Chinese waters
-Tokyo apologized immediately and paid indemnity

Munich Conference

-sept 1938
-western European democracies gave Czechoslovakia to Germany in the hopes that it would be Hitler's last territorial claim

Appeasement

-when European democracies gave up Czechoslovakia
-a surrender on the installment plan

Nonaggression Pact

-signed by Hitler and Stalin on August 23, 1939
-allowed Hitler to attack Poland without fear of an attack from Russia
-helped spur the start of World War II.

(Nazi-Soviet Pact)

Invasion of Poland

-Hitler demanded Poland return areas from Germany after WWI
-after poland refused, Germany invaded on Sept 1, 1939
-Britain and France were forced to declare war

"Cash and Carry"

-the only way that Europe could buy American war materials in WWII
-They would have to transport the munitions in their own ships and only purchase the munitions with cash

Peacetime draft

-Sept 6, 1940
-FDR's conscription law made for training each year 1.2 million troops and 800,000 reserves

Destroyer Deal

-Sept 2, 1940
-FDR agreed to transfer destroyers to Great Britain in turn for 8 valuable defensive base sites

Election of 1940

-repub nominee was Wendell Wilkie
-dem nominee was FDR
-FDR won becase of a strong economic recovery based on defense purchases and fear of war causing voters to stay with experienced leader

Wendell Wilkie

-Republican presidential candidate versus Roosevelt in 1940 election of 1940
-agreed with FDR on preparedness and giving aid through criticized the New Deal

Lend-Lease Act

-March of 1941
-said that the U.S. would lend or lease weapons to overseas countries and victims of aggression who would in turn finish the job of the fighting, and keep the war overseas from the U.S.

Invasion of USSR

-june 22, 194
-hitler wanted oil and other resources in soviet union

Atlantic Charter

-created by Winston Churchill + FDR in a secret conference
-outlined the hopes of the democracies and intentions for improvements after WWII
-included self-determination, no territorial expansion, and free trade

Dec 7, 1941

-japanese bombers attacked Pearl Harbor causing 3,000 casualties and destroying battleship fleet
-US declared war the next day

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