Psychosocial Development (Erikson)
Trust vs. Mistrust - This is a period of extreme growth and development.
According to Erikson trust is acquired through
actions such as being fed on time, consistent response to the child crying, communication with the child, consistent care, love, touch, and eye contact.
How many phases in Erikson's Trust vs Mistrust and what are they
3 phases: phase 1- Oral, phase 2- Grasping and phase 3- Biting
Oral Phase - Food intake is predominant. Child eats constantly. The child tolerates little frustration and delay in gratification. Must be a balance between early gratification and delayed gratification. Behavior is extremely egocentric
Erikson 2nd Phase
Grasping Phase - Tactile stimulation is very important in gaining trust.
Erikson 3rd Phase
Biting Phase - Trying to control the environment. Relieves the pain from teething by biting things. This gives them some sense of control.
Piaget Cognitive Development
Sensory Motor Stage
How many phases in Piaget's Cognitive Development?
According to Erikson failure to learn delayed gratification leads to
According to Erikson what is the most important social activity a baby encounters during the first 3-4 months?
The newborn according to Erikson can tolerate little frustration or delayed gratification because _____ is at its height?
Erikson- the reciprocal response to the infant's grasping is
the parents holding or touching. this is pleasurable tactile stimulation for the parents and the infant
Piaget period for birth to 24 months is known as
During Piaget's sensorimotor phases infants progress from _____ behaviors to ______ to _______
reflexive, simple repetitive acts , imitative activitites
The 3 crucial events that take place during Piaget's sensorimotor phase
1- infants learn to separate themselves from other objects in the environment, 2 - concept of object permanance ( objects that leave the visual field still exist) and 3- the ability to use symbols or mental representation ( symbol allows the infant to experience the object or situation without actually experiencing it
Piaget's separation phase coincide with Erikson's
concepts on the formation of trust
Piaget 1st Stage
Use of Reflexes (Birth to 1 month) - Expresses personality and individuality through reflexes like rooting and sucking.
Piaget 2nd Stage
Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months) - Replaces reflexive behavior with voluntary acts. Certain cry for hunger, changing, sickness, etc... Environment is taken in with all senses. Can follow objects with the eyes, and if distracted can find the object again.
Piaget 3rd Stage
Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months) - Vision and tactile senses are now connected. They can see something and pick it up. Begin to develop a sense of permanency about objects. Objects are remembered even though it went beyond the range of sight (peek-a-boo). Still egocentric. Begin to initiate sounds and gestures. Start to engage in play. Solitary play (play by themselves).
During Piaget's 3rd stage 3 new processes of human behavior occur.
1- imitation- by the second half of the first year the baby can imitate sounds and simple gestures, 2- Play-baby enjoys performing an act after they have mastered it 3- Affect- external objects are remembered even when out of sight.
Piaget 4th Stage
Coordination of Secondary Scheme and Its Application to New Situations (9-12 months) - Use previous behavioral achievements as the foundation for adding new intellectual skills. Have an increase in motor skills which allows for greater exploration of the environment. At 9 months babies can crawl, at 12 months they can walk. Hiding an object doesn't mean it's gone, and removing an obstacle may reveal the object. They begin to anticipate events (screaming at the doctor's office)
The beginning of intellectual reasoning begins in Piaget's ___ stage
When the baby connects the words bye-bye with mommy or daddy going to work this is an example of ____ inn Piaget's ___stage
Intellectual reasoning, 4th stage
Babies usually crawl at ______ months during Piaget's ___________ stage
9month , 4th stage
Babies usually walk at _______months during Piaget's ____stage
12 months, 4th stage
Physical Development - Weight
doubles at six months and triples at one year. Growth is very rapid during the first six months. They gain 5-7 oz. weekly.
Physical Development - Height increases
1" per month for the first six months. By age one; birth length should have increased by 50%.
Physical Development - Respiratory System
Breaths are abdominal. Look at the abdomen to count respirations.
Physical Development - Circulatory System
Heart rate is irregular, but normal for a newborn. Iron that they have stored up to this point is now decreasing.
Physical Development - Gastrointestinal System
Majority of digestive processes don't function until 3 months of age. At 3 months babies start drooling because saliva production is now active, but the swallowing reflex is not coordinated. Peristalsis slows throughout infancy resulting in fewer bowel movement and better utilization of food. Stomach size increases so it can hold a larger quantity. Tooth eruption begins at 5-7 months. One year old may have 4 or 6 teeth, but by 2½ they should have the primary 20 teeth present.
Physical Development - Renal System
Structure is immature until the second half of the second year of life. Urine is voided frequently.
There are 7 stages in the development of Faith-Fowler.
Stage 0 is undifferentiated. There is no concept of right and wrong, no beliefs, and no convictions. The beginning of a faith relationship is established with the development of basic trust through their relationships with the primary caregiver.
Gross Motor Development (Large muscles)
At 12 weeks the child can lift the head well. Ability to roll starts around 16 weeks (back to side). At 20 weeks from the abdomen to the back and the back to the abdomen. 7-8 months can sit well without support. Crawling around 9 months. At 1 year old they may be able to walk with one hand held and a wide stance. At 15 months can walk without help.
Fine Motor Development (Small muscles)
At 4 weeks the hands are clenched firmly. 16 weeks hands are open, and may reach for an object but miss. At 28 weeks develop a palmer grasp (grab with the entire hand and palm). At 40 weeks can grab with pincer grasp (thumb and forefinger) and is now ready for finger food.
Receptive language (go get your blanket) comes before
expressive language (I'm going to get my blanket). They cry first. At 1 year, they can speak 2-3 words (mama, bye-bye)
Attach to mother figure first
Around 6 months
Around 8 months
Can now have solitary play.
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD)
psychological and developmental problem that stems from maladaptive or absent attachment between infant and parent
Should you allow infant to play by themselves.
Playing with others builds
motor skills, language skills (talk to them), creativity, and cognitive skills.
Suggested auditory toys birth to 6 months
music boxes, musical mobiles, crib dangling bells small-handled clear rattle
Suggested tactile toys birth to 6 months
stuffed animals, soft clothes, soft or furry quilt soft mobiles
Suggested visual toys birth to 6 months
nursery mobiles, unbreakable mirrors, see-through crib bumpers contrasting colored sheets
Suggested kinetic toys birth to 6 months
rocking crib or cradle, infant swing
Suggested auditory toys 6-12 months
rattles of different sizes, shapes, tones and colors; squeaky animals and dolls; records with light, rhythmic music
Suggested tactile toys 6 -12 months
soft, different-textured animals and dolls; sponge toys, floating toys, squeeze toys, teething toys books with textures or objects such as fur and zipper soft clothes, soft or furry quilt soft mobiles
Suggested visual toys 6-12 months
various colored blocks, nested boxes or cups, books with rhymes and bright pictures, strings of big beads, simple take-apart toys, large ball, cup and spoon, large puzzles, Jack -in- the-box
why is microwaving a bottle and baby food not recommended
uneven heating which may cause burns to the mouth and tongue
Suggested kinetic toys 6- 12 months
Activity box for crib; push-pull toys, wind-up swing
According to Erikson the developmental task for toddlerhood is acquiring _____ while overcoming ____ and _____
autonomy, doubt and shame
Psychological development task toddlers need to master
Differentiation of self from other, particularly mom, toleration of separation from parents, Ability to withstand delayed gratification, control over bodily functions, acquisition of socially acceptable behaviors, Verbal means of communication and the ability to interact with other in a less egocentric manner.
Nutritional Needs 1st 6 months
Breast feeding, bottle feeding, and weaning. You should wean the baby when it is ready. Bottle feeding usually ends around 15 months.
Nutritional Needs 2nd 6 months
Introduction to solid foods. They now have good head control, the GI tract has matured, and the extrusion reflex has faded (spit out everything placed in the mouth).
What type of cereal should you give prior to 6 months and why
rice cereal has fewer allergies and is easier to digest)
Cow's milk and egg whites can be given after
1 year because of allergies. Honey can be given after 1 year if at all because of botulism from bacterial spores.
Parental Education - When and how to introducing new food
allow 4-7 days between the new foods so you can see if an allergy to a certain food is present. Only give small amounts at first (1-2 teaspoons). Parents can also make their own baby food.
Juices should be diluted
1/3 juice and 2/3 water.
Order for introducing foods
Introduce fruits first, then yellow vegetables (easier to digest), then green vegetables, and finally meat.
Sleep/Rest Requirements for a baby -
Amount varies anywhere from 12-22 hours/day. 20-30% is REM sleep.
Sleep requirements After the 4th month,
the child may start to sleep through the night. May take 1 or 2 naps per day.
Immunizations - There are 3 types of vaccinations. They are given (by state law) unless the child is immunosuppressed (AIDS)
Dilute solution of the living organism, and is swallowed or injected like the polio vaccine, Dead organism that is injected into the body like pertussis, Made from toxins that are produced by an infectious organism and refined in a lab such as diphtheria.
Safety concerns and how to prevent
- Chocking, falls, electricity. Get on your hands and knees and look at things from the child's point of view.
types of car seats for infants
Use a rear-facing middle placed car seat.
When are the first 4 regular Pediatric Visits
Start at 1 week old and done weekly until 1 month old.
1- 6 months when are regular Pediatric visits
After 6 months when are regularly scheduled Pediatric visits
9, 12, 15, 18, & 24 months, than yearly.
What does the doctor check at regularly scheduled Pediatric visits
The doctor checks height, weight, performs a neural assessment, provides immunizations, physical assessment, developmental assessment, at 6 months takes hemoglobin, give fluoride supplements, measures head circumference, and plots growth on a graph.
What additional test does the doctor perform at the 6 month regularly scheduled visit
takes hemoglobin, give fluoride supplements, measures head circumference, and plots growth on a graph.
Paroxysmal Abdominal Pain (colic)
- Abdominal pain and cramping around the same time of day. May be burped, pump the legs, place the abdomen on a hard surface, or place a warm bottle on the abdomen to break up the gas. 90% of children develop this. Bottle feeding technique is a big culprit.
Paroxysmal Abdominal Pain
Seborrheic Dermatitis (cradle cap)
Top of the head looks like dandruff. It is a chronic recurring inflammatory reaction due to overproduction of oil in the scalp. Treat with a little dandruff shampoo or mineral oil and brush in thoroughly.
2 Major Health Concerns
Failure to Thrive and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
The Toddler age range
Toddler Psychosocial Growth & Development
Time of exploration of the environment, and attempting to gain control over themselves and others.
According to Erikson toddlers
- Autonomy vs. shame and doubt - Time to decide whether to let go or hold back. Offer the child simple choices that you are ok with.
Temper Tantrums -
Ignore the behavior and give a time out. Discipline is very important. Be strong! Set limits. This provides security and the child knows what to expect. The child is still very egocentric.
Piaget 5th Stage
Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months) - Experiment with new ways to reach a desired outcome. Can drink or dump the milk in order to empty the cup. Aware of a relationship between two events, but is unable to transfer the knowledge to a new situation. Able to recognize the different shapes and become more aware of object prominence and existence of objects not seen.
Piaget 6th Stage
Invention of New Means Through Mental Combination (18-24 months) - Search for objects and potential hiding places. Imitation shows a deeper meaning and understanding. Able to copy gestures and words. Limited and exaggerated sense of time. Give something to relate to (at the end of your show we will eat dinner).
Age range for Pre-operational Phase
Age ranges and describe the Pre-conceptual Stage
2-4 years - Imagination is at its peak Man was 20' tall). Can't reason with the child. Magical thinking (they think they can fly). What they think will happen (if a new baby comes I'll kill it), which may leave them vulnerable if tragedy occurs. Animism gives life-like qualities to inanimate objects. Doll sits at the dinner table and eats.
Spirtual development name Fower's 5 stages
stage O- undifferentiated(infancy); Stage 1- Intuitive- projective (toddlerhood); Stage 2 Mythical-literal(school age); Stage 3- synthetic- convention(pre-adolescent) and Stage 4 individual-reflexive(adolescent)
Fowler stage 0
Piaget's phase for ages 2-7
Preoperartional Phase Piaget is divided into 2 phases
1- Preconceptual phase
2- Intuitive phase
Proconceptual phases for Piaget is between the ages of
The intuitive phase for Piaget is between the ages of
one of the major transitions between Piaget's Preconceptual phase and the intuitive phase is
the shift from totla eco-centric thought to social awareness and the ability to consider others viewpoints (however egocentricity is still evident)
Piaget's Preoperational phase is between what ages
approximately 2 years of age to 4 years of age