Unit Two

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Conservatism

This belief system believes that change happens slowly. Authority comes from above. Monarchy/Aristocracy/Church.

Liberalism

This belief system is favored by the middle class. Laissez-Faire (Adam Smith) and Democracy (Enlightenment driven)

Nationalism

Positive Force that united citizens

Romanticism

an artistic rejection of the Enlightenment

1st Industrial Revolution

This occured during the 1800s and centered around manufacturing of textile, steel, coal, etc.

Karl Marx

This man came up with the idea of communism/dialectic socialism that said that two classes have always battled against each other to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other

Marxism

the economic and political theories of Karl Marx that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded (SCIENTIFIC VIEW OF HISTORY/ONE CLASS SYSTEM/STATE OWNED MEANS OF PRODUCTION)

Labor Theory of Value

Theory that the value of any produced good or service is equal to the amount of labor used, directly or indirectly, to produce it.

Emigration

Between 1840 and 1940, 60 million European's leave the continent. 30 mil of those go to the USA. This act is known as...

Push Pull Factors

events and conditions that either force people to move elsewhere or strongly attract them to do so

Failed Revolutions of 1848

A series of political upheavals in Europe caused by the Industrial Revolution and individual's heeding for change. They were relatively unsuccessful.

Irish Potato Famine

Event in the 1840s that led to a surge in immigration to the US.

Imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.

Imperialism Motivations

Economics (monetary gain), Competition, Civilizing Mission (spread of Christianity), Social Darwinism

Civilizing Mission

The spread of Christianity, (White Man's Burden-Have to spread Christianity)

British East India Company

A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.

Sepoy Uprising

Indian troops who serve in the British army who started a war for independence that lead India to its independence. (Turning point for India)

Indian National Congress

A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participations in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, it appealed increasingly to the poor, and it organized mass protests demanding self-government and independence.

Gandhi

..., This was a leader of the Indian independence movement in mid-20th century known for his nonviolent protests.

Satyagraha

..., the form of nonviolent resistance initiated in India by Gandhi in order to oppose British rule and to hasten political reforms

Salt March

..., In order to protest the high tax on salt imposed by the British and other acts that were unfair to the Indians, Gandhi and 78 followers marched 200 miles to the Indian Ocean, where Gandhi made salt from the seawater. The result was a huge boycott by the Indians of British manufactured goods, which led to the arrest of Gandhi and 60,000 of his supporters.

Settler Societies

Colonies set up throughout Australia and New Zealand which evicted 100,000s aboriginals from their native lands.

White Australia Policy

..., after a flood of immigrants entered the country in the mid-1800s, laws were passed to allow only whites to immigrate. ideas of racial superiority also led to brutal violence against native peoples. this antagonized many nations particularly those in asia

Australian Colonial Economy

Gold was primarily part of this

Maori

The indigenous people who were found in New Zealand during British invasion.

The Treaty of Waitangi

This document was cause for misinterpretation and resulted in future conflicts with the Maori people. Was presumably designed to place New Zealand under British Protection. But lead to colonial expansion with Britain.

Opium Wars

..., war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade sparked by Lin Zexu

Lin Zexu

..., Distinguished Chinese official charged with stamping out opium trade in southern China; ordered blockade of European trading areas in Canton and confiscation of opium; sent into exile following the Opium War

Provisions of the Unequal Treaties

Foreign Trade Ports in China, Annexation of Hong Kong to Britain, extraterritoriality to Britain. These were all part of the agreements following the end of the Opium Wars

Taiping Rebellion

internal economic problems in China led to a peasant revolt. Lasted for about 10 years. Leader was Hong Xiuquan who was a Christian convert., The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire.

Self-Strengthening Movement

Following the numerous rebellions in China, the Qing dynasty initiate this to try and help solve issues in china. Enacted as a result of the failed Taiping Rebellion, the reforms were designed to introduce westernization with the hope of modernizing China. The reforms failed and China remained agrarian and committed to Confucius ideals. (WEAPONS TECH BUT NO POLITICAL REFORM, EVENTUALLY LED TO DECLINE OF QING)

Commodore Perry

Forced Japan to open up to western trade by threatening Edo and forcing the signing of unequal treaties (similar to those initiated within the Qing dynasty a few years earlier)

Meiji Restoration

..., The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism. RESTORES EMPEROR POWER AND RAISE SAMURAI PROMINENCE

Industrialization in Meiji Japan

"Civilization and Enlightenment" advances in technology, invention, western fashion, education, western ideals.

Meiji Constitution

..., Following the end of the Edo/Tokugawa period in Japan, a new government was established with a new document in which no discrimination was allowed, Imperial rule was banished besides the Emperor, more rights to women and freedom of social class that once dominated the region. CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY

Ito Hirobumi

This guy drafted the Japanese Constitution

Sino-Japanese War

Late 1800s war fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea. Japan wins and Qing suffer major blow.

Russo-Japanese War

Early 1900s war fought between Russia and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea. Japan wins and transforms nation into major imperial power. Japan declared war on Russia because of Russian expansion.

Berlin Conference

This meeting setup guidelines as to how Africa would be split up. (You have to have a presence in the land you want in order to claim it)

Leopold II

..., Belgian king who ruthlessly exploited the natives on his African land for personal gain. He owned the Congo and many rubber plantations in which he utilized inhumane ways to force labor (cutting of limbs)

British Kenya

Aboriginals were forced out of the lands and taxes were inacted here. Taxes forced labor because there was no money (traditional barter)

French Senegal

France attempted to assimilate natives from their race and they also contributed to WWI by forcing to go to frontlines.

Monoculture

..., dependence on a single agricultural commodity, In the case of Africa this was peanuts and cocoa and cotton

Cecil Rhodes

..., British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe, British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa

Zulu War

..., a war in 1878 between with the British and the Native South African tribe the Zulus that ended with British victory.

Boer War

..., A conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa. Britain wanted it because of Diamonds and Gold deposits found in the land

Manifest Destiny

..., a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)

Monroe Doctrine

..., A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere. USED TO BE ANTI-IMPERIALIST

Mexican-American War

..., Polk wanted to acquire California/New Mexico region. Polk resorted to an agressive method by sending troops to disputed area. US declared war on Mex. when hostilities arose. Americans captured Mexico City. Santa Anna fled, war ended. Resulted in Mexico giving up huge amounts of land.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

..., Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million. Also granted natives of the land citizenship in the USA and property rights.

Yellow Press

..., made people more interested in the war by publishing sometimes untrue articles that inflamed opinion and anger (Half Truth) Comaparable to NAtional Inquirer

Spanish American War

..., War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.

Aguinaldo

played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War that resisted American occupation.

Queen Liliuokalani

..., the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests

Caudillos

..., independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of latin america.

Santa Anna

..., Mexican dictator who was in charge when war broke out between the Mexicans and Americans. He lost Texas to rebels, and was the leader of the armed forces during the war. CORRUPT PRESIDENT 12 TIMES OVERAN ALAMO

Maximilian

..., French viceroy appointed by Napoleon III of France to lead the new government set up in Mexico. After the Civil War, the U.S. invaded and he was executed, a demonstration of the enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine to European powers.

French Intervention

Napoleon III of France's attempt to restore a monarchy in Mexico. Eventually failed. Cinco de Mayo is the holiday that celebrates the overthrow of France.

Porfirio Diaz

..., a dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foriegn companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants. Eventually left office because of Mexican Revolution

Porfiriato

..., Term used to refer to Porfirio Diaz's rule from 1876-1911 of Mexico. Represented the triumph of pragmatism over ideology and ushered in a period of accelerated economic development. MODERNIZATION

Triple Alliance

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (But Switched later to opposite) Alliance

Trench Warfare

..., Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.

War of Attrition

..., A war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses

Verdun

...Huge battle of attrition, 1916 spearhead offensive battle on the western front initiated by Germany (General Falkenhayn) in which they hoped to crush France and taken them out of the war, however this place was very good defensive position and French held Verdun for 10 months. Nearly a million killed. No territory was gained.

Somme

..., A five-month offensive between July and November 1916 in the Somme river area in France. It began with a massive week-long British artillery barrage that proved futile, since the Germans just sheltered in their dug-outs until the shelling stopped, then machine-gunned waves of British troops who were crossing no-man's land. On the first day alone the British lost 60,000 men. The battle ended in a stalemate, after torrential rain turned the trenches into a quagmire. There were more than 650,000 casualties on both sides, and although British had relieved the French at Verdun, they had only advanced about five miles.

Armenian Genocide

..., the Turkish government organized the department of the armenians in the Ottoman Empire and over a million were murdered or starved - one of the first genocides of the 20th centuries

Submarine Warfare

..., Used during World War I mainly between German U-Boats and Atlantic supply convoys for Great Britain in British waters. Eventually led to US coming into the war after Germany's resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare.

Marxist-Leninist Theory

Political Revolution must occur first!

The Treaty of Versailles

Includes the War Guilt Clause (Germany's Fault for WWI) and Reparations (Germany's gotta pay for the war)

Mandate System

..., Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision. (p. 770)

2nd Industrial Revolution

This occured during the 1800s and centered around manufacturing of synthetics

Urbanization

This was the first effect the industrial revolution had.

Nature of Work

This was the second effect the industrial revolution had. (time driven)

Proletariat

Working Class (Industrial factory worker)

Bourgeoisie

Middle Class (owning/managing class)

Social Darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion. (SCIENTIFIC RACISM, EUROPEAN IS BEST)

Cuban Restrictions

Cba gains independence but has this: USA can restore order, limits on borrowing money, USA gets GIT MO!

Triple Entente

Britain, France, Russia Alliance

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