Endocrine System and Reproduction

30 terms by khoff46 

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Prentice Hall Science Explore Human Biology and Health

endocrine gland

A structure of the endocrine system which produces and releases its chemical products directly into the bloodstream.

hormone

the chemical product of an endocrine gland

target cell

A cell in the body that recognizes a hormone's chemical structure.

hypothalamus

a part of the brain that links the nervous system and the endocrine system

pituitary gland

An endocrine gland that controls many body activities

negative feedback

A process in which the endocrine system is turned off by the condition it produces

egg

Female sex cell

sperm

Male sex cell

fertilization

the joining of a sperm cell and an egg cell

zygote

a fertilized egg, produced by the joining of a sperm and an egg

testis

male reproductive organ that produces sperm and testosterone

testosterone

A hormone produced by the testes that controls the development of physical characteristics in mature men

scrotum

the external pouch that contains the testes

semen

a mixture of sperm and fluids

penis

the organ through which both semen and urine leave the male body

ovary

organ of the female reproductive system in which eggs and estrogen are produced

estrogen

a hormone produced by the ovaries that controls the development of eggs and adult female characteristics

fallopian tube

a passageway for eggs from an ovary to the uterus

uterus

the hollow muscular organ of the female reproductive system in which a fertilized egg develops

vagina

a muscular passageway leading to the outside of the body; also called the birth canal

menstrual cycle

the cycle of changes that occurs in the female reproductive system, during which an egg develops and the uterus prepares for the arrival of a fertilized egg

ovulation

The process by which a mature egg is released from the ovaries into the fallopian tubes.

menstruation

Process in which the thickend lining of the uterus breaks down and blood and tissue exit the female body through the vagina.

embryo

A developing human during the first eight weeks after fertilization has occurred.

fetus

a developing human from the ninth week of development until birth

amniotic sac

a fluid-filled sac that cushions and protects a developing embryo and fetus in the uterus

placenta

a membrane that becomes the link between the developing embryo or fetus and the mother

umbilical cord

a ropelike structure that forms between the embryo or fetus and the placenta

adolescence

the stage of development between childhood and adulthood when children become adults physically and mentally

puberty

the period of sexual development in which the body becomes able to reproduce

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