← THE THIRD WORLD: IRAN, NIGERIA AND MEXICO Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Chador Full-body-covering garment that most Iranian women have to wear. Charisma A style of leadership that emphasizes the personal magnetism of a single individual. Fundamentalism Religious beliefs of a literal nature that often lead to right-wing political views. Guardianship of the Jurist Developed by Ayatollah Khomeini, supports the notion that senior clerics have the best capacity to rule in a Muslim society. Image of the Enemy Psychological concept that focuses on stereotyping one's adversary. Islamicists Muslims who are convinced that their faith should dominate politically. Shah Title of the rulers of Iran before the 1979 Islamic revolution. Sharia Islamic legal code which many argue should supercede civil law in countries such as Iran and Nigeria. Shiite Minority Muslim sect, usually seen as more militant than the Sunnis. Sunni Majority Muslim sect, usually seen as more moderate than the Shiites. Khamenei, Ayatollah Ali Supreme Leader of Iran since the death of Ayatollah Khomeini. Khatami, Mohammed Reformist president of Iran, 1997-2005. Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah Muslim cleric who led the 1979 revolution and Iran and was leader of the country until his death. Rafsanjani, Ayatollah Hasemi Second and perhaps fourth president of Iran since the 1979 revolution. Shah, Mohammed Reza The second and last Pahlevi shah of Iran; deposed in 1979. Shah, Reza First Pahlevi shah of Iran. Assembly of Experts An informal body in Iran which has de facto vet power over all major political decisions. Bonyad Islamic charities in Iran, many of which are controlled by the government. Constitutional Revolution Begun in 1906, the first attempt to bring anything like democracy to Iran. Expediency Council A half lay and half clerical body designed to smooth relations between those two communities in Iran at the highest levels. Guardian Council The leading theological body in Iran for political purposes. Majlis The Iranian parliament. Pahlavi dynasty The father and son that ruled Iran for most of the twentieth century until the revolution of 1979. Supreme Leader Title given to the Ayatollah who sits atop all Iranian political institutions. White Revolution The term used by the shah to describe reforms in Iran between the end of World War II and the downfall of his regime in 1979. Dual mandate In Nigeria and elsewhere, the notion that colonial powers had to rule on their own and through local leaders at the same time. Hausa-Fulani The leading Muslim group in northern Nigeria. Igbo The leading ethnic group in south-eastern Nigeria. Often also spelled Ibo. Import substitution Development strategy that uses tariffs and other barriers to imports, and therefore stimulates domestic industries. Indirect rule British and other colonial procedures through which "natives" were used to carry out colonial rule. Mass political culture Basic values and assumptions that people have toward authority, the political system, and other overarching themes in political life. Structural adjustment Development strategy that stresses integration into global markets, privatization, and so on. Supported by the World Bank, IMF, and other major northern financial institutions. Yoruba The leading ethnic group in southwestern Nigeria. Zero-sum Political outcome in which one side wins and the other loses. Biafra The leading ethnic group in southwestern Nigeria. International Monetary fund International agency that provides loans and other forms of assistance to countries with fiscal problems. World bank A major international lending agency for development projects based in Washington. camarilla In Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America, a politician's personal following in a patron-client relationship. corporatism In Mexico and elsewhere in the third world, another term to describe the way people are integrated into the system via patron-client relations. debt crisis The massive accumulation of loans taken out by third world countries and owed to northern banks and governments from the 1970s onward. Electoral alchemy The way Mexican governments have used fraud to rig elections. Maquiladora Factories in Mexico (initially on the U.S. border, now anywhere) that operated tax-free in manufacturing goods for export. Mestizo Term used to describe Mexicans of mixed racial origin. Newly Industrializing country The handful of countries, such as South Korea, that have developed a strong industrial base and grown faster than most of the third world. Patron-client relations Neofeudal relations in which "patrons" gain the support of "clients" through the mutual exchange of benefits and obligations. Sexeño The six-year term of a Mexican president. Confederation of Mexican Workers The official trade union affiliated with the PRI. Federal Election Commission The old (and corrupt) body that supervised elections in Mexico. Immigration Reform and Control Act U.S. law, passed in 1986, that limits the rights of immigrants, especially those from Mexico. PRI Institutional Revolutionary Party, which ruled Mexico from 1927 to 2000 PAN National Action Party, the leading right-of-center opposition party in Mexico NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement. Agreement linking the economies of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. PRD Party of the Democratic Revolution. The leading left-of-center opposition party in Mexico. PEMEX Mexico's nationalized petrochemical industry Gobernación The ministry in charge of administration in Mexico; until recently, a post often held by politicians before becoming president.